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Table 1 Individual and contextual characteristics of live births by low birth weight status. Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico and Peru; 2014

From: Urban social environment and low birth weight in 360 Latin American cities

   Low birth weight (<  2500 g)  
Overall No Yes Comparison
n = 4,531,699 n = 4,177,549 n = 354,150 (t-test or χ2) p value
Maternal education, % distribution
 Less than primary 9.3 9.2 11.2 <  0.001
 At least primary but less than completed secondary 49.5 49.5 49.0  
 Complete secondary and above 41.2 41.3 39.8  
Maternal age, % distribution
  ≤ 19 16.5 16.4 18.1 <  0.001
 20–24 26.2 26.4 23.9  
 25–29 24.3 24.5 21.9  
 30–34 19.9 19.8 20.0  
  ≥ 35 13.1 12.9 16.1  
City characteristics, mean (SD)
 Score of sub-city population educational attainment 0.166 (1.381) 0.164 (1.383) 0.189 (1.350) <  0.001
 Score of city social environment index 0.219 (0.518) 0.219 (0.517) 0.216 (0.528) <  0.001
 City gross domestic product, USD 18,325 (9717) 18,353 (9749) 17,989 (9325) <  0.001
 City population size, millions 5.9 (7.2) 5.9 (7.2) 6.2 (7.3) <  0.001
Countries, % distribution
 Argentina 11.2 11.2 10.5 <  0.001
 Brazil 38.1 37.6 43.4  
 Chile 4.0 4.1 3.2  
 Colombia 8.9 8.8 10.8  
 Costa Rica 0.7 0.7 0.8  
 Guatemala 1.6 1.5 2.8  
 Mexico 29.1 29.5 24.2  
 Peru 6.4 6.6 4.4