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Table 3 Trends in adiposity and blood pressure parameters by gender

From: Four-year trends in adiposity and its association with hypertension in serial groups of young adult university students in urban Cameroon: a time-series study

Variables Overall 2009 2010 2011 2012 p-value p-trend
Men, N (%) 1893 (100) 389 (20.6) 300 (15.9) 504 (26.6) 700 (36.9)   
 SBP, mmHg 120 (12) 121 (10) 120 (11) 118 (12) 120 (13) 0.003 0.0002
 DBP, mmHg 70 (10) 72 (9) 72 (10) 69 (10) 70 (10) <0.0001 <0.0001
 Hypertension, n (%) 133 (7.0) 22 (5.7) 20 (6.7) 30 (5.9) 61 (8.7) 0.160 0.063
 BMI, kg/m2 22.9 (2.8) 22.7 (2.9) 22.8 (2.8) 22.8 (2.6) 23.2 (2.9) 0.007 0.501
 Obesity, n (%) 39 (2.1) 6 (1.5) 7 (2.3) 8 (1.6) 18 (2.6) 0.551 0.336
 Overweight and obesity, n (%) 332 (17.5) 51 (13.1) 51 (17.0) 84 (16.7) 146 (20.9) 0.012 0.002
 Waist circumference, cm 76.1 (6.5) 76.5 (5.8) 75.9 (6.3) 76.3 (5.6) 75.8 (7.4) 0.320 0.639
 Abdominal obesity, n (%) 9 (0.5) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.3) 3 (0.6) 4 (0.6) 0.843 0.429
 Hip circumference, cm 94.4 (6.9) 94.5 (7.5) 95.4 (6.6) 93.2 (5.9) 94.8 (7.1) <0.0001 0.004
 WHR 0.81 (0.05) 0.81 (0.04) 0.79 (0.04) 0.82 (0.04) 0.80 (0.06) <0.0001 0.011
 WHtR 0.44 (0.04) 0.44 (0.04) 0.43 (0.04) 0.44 (0.03) 0.43 (0.04) 0.065 0.424
Women, N (%) 833 (100) 170 (20.4) 169 (20.3) 186 (22.3) 308 (37.0)   
 SBP, mmHg 113 (12) 114 (11) 114 (11) 113 (14) 113 (13) 0.565 0.241
 DBP, mmHg 70 (10) 71 (10) 72 (9) 69 (10) 70 (10) 0.007 0.009
 Hypertension, n (%) 39 (4.7) 11 (6.5) 6 (3.6) 6 (3.2) 16 (5.2) 0.426 0.700
 BMI, kg/m2 23.7 (4.1) 23.7 (4.1) 23.0 (3.9) 23.5 (3.6) 24.1 (4.6) 0.057 0.675
 Obesity, n (%) 56 (6.7) 11 (6.5) 7 (4.2) 7 (3.8) 31 (10.1) 0.020 0.064
 Overweight and obesity, n (%) 239 (28.7) 44 (25.9) 45 (26.8) 47 (25.3) 103 (33.4) 0.144 0.068
 Waist circumference, cm 75.1 (8.8) 75.2 (8.8) 73.7 (8.2) 75.5 (7.6) 75.6 (9.7) 0.149 0.709
 Abdominal obesity, n (%) 64 (7.8) 11 (6.5) 9 (5.6) 8 (4.3) 36 (11.7) 0.011 0.027
 Hip circumference, cm 98.8 (9.4) 100.6 (9.9) 98.3 (9.0) 97.6 (8.2) 98.8 (10.0) 0.018 0.002
 WHR 0.76 (0.05) 0.75 (0.05) 0.75 (0.05) 0.77 (0.05) 0.76 (0.05) <0.0001 <0.0001
 WHtR 0.46 (0.05) 0.46 (0.05) 0.45 (0.05) 0.46 (0.05) 0.46 (0.06) 0.108 0.764
  1. Data are presented as mean (standard deviation), unless indicated otherwise; DBP diastolic blood pressure, SBP, systolic blood pressure, WHR, waist-to-hip ratio, WHtR, waist-to-height ratio