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Table 3 Univariate multinomial logistic regression analysis of factors associated with combinations of risk behaviours among adolescents

From: Clustering and correlates of screen-time and eating behaviours among young adolescents

  Low FV / high ED
OR (95% CI)
High ST / Low FV
OR (95% CI)
High ST / High ED
OR (95% CI)
3 risk behaviours
OR (95% CI)
Demographic
 Gender (ref: female)
  Male 0.89 (0.46–1.76) 0.81 (0.51–1.28) 0.80 (0.42–1.51) 0.80 (0.51–1.27)
 Age (ref: age 12 years)
  11 years 0.61 (0.30–1.27) 0.84 (0.53–1.35) 0.87 (0.45–1.67) 0.65 (0.40–1.05)
 Ethnicity (ref: Other)
  White / white British 2.08 (0.25–17.21) 1.07 (0.36–3.19) 0.80 (0.20–3.16) 0.53 (0.21–1.35)
  Asian / Asian British 2.80 (0.30–26.56) 1.67 (0.50–5.59) 1.20 (0.30–5.61) 0.93 (0.32–2.70)
 Brothers (ref: one or more)
  None 1.21 (0.61–2.43) 0.89 (0.54–1.45) 1.18 (0.61–2.28) 1.13 (0.70–1.80)
 Sisters (ref: one or more)
  None 1.04 (0.53–2.04) 0.95 (0.60–1.52) 0.83 (0.43–1.60) 0.79 (0.50–1.26)
 Parents at home (ref: other)
  Mother and Father 1.19 (0.55–2.66) 0.66 (0.40–1.08) 0.96 (0.48–1.92) 0.79 (0.49–1.30)
 Deprivation scale (ref: low)
  Middle 1.44 (0.58–3.57) 0.92 (0.49–1.73) 1.93 (0.83–4.47) 1.21 (0.63–2.32)
  High 0.97 (0.37–2.55) 1.07 (0.58–1.94) 1.44 (0.58–3.56) 1.86* (1.02–3.37)
 Individual
  Habit for watching television (ref: low habit) 1.81 (0.88–3.73) 1.49 (0.93–2.42) 2.20 (1.12–4.29)* 2.29 (1.43–3.70)***
  Habit for eating snack foods while watching TV (ref: low habit) 2.24 (1.09–4.62)* 1.23 (0.73–1.98) 3.62 (1.75–7.49)*** 3.35 (2.04–5.51)***
  Habit for eating FV while watching TV (ref: low habit) 0.95 (0.46–1.95) 1.12 (0.70–1.80) 2.84 (1.38–5.87)** 0.94 (0.59–1.49)
  Self-efficacy for not watching TV/DVD’s or using computers (ref: low self-efficacy) 1.13 (0.55–2.29) 0.73 (0.45–1.18) 1.29 (0.66–2.50) 0.48 (0.30–0.77)**
  Self-efficacy for not eating snack foods when watching TV/DVD’s (ref: low self-efficacy) 0.89 (0.44–1.80) 0.84 (0.52–1.36) 0.56 (0.28–1.11) 0.40 (0.24–0.66)***
  Self-efficacy for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption (ref: low self-efficacy) 0.58 (0.28–1.20) 0.70 (0.42–1.15) 0.75 (0.38–1.48) 0.45 (0.27–0.73)***
  Self-efficacy for reducing energy-dense snack food consumption (ref: low self-efficacy) 0.78 (0.39–1.55) 0.80 (0.50–1.30) 0.93 (0.48–1.80) 0.45 (0.28–0.72)***
 Behavioural
  Eating breakfast while watching TV (ref: [2] or less days a week) 2.54 (1.24–5.20)** 1.35 (0.85–2.15) 3.26 (1.63–6.54)*** 1.71 (1.08–2.70)*
  Eating lunch while watching TV (ref: [2] or less days a week) 1.59 (0.80–3.16) 1.26 (0.79–2.01) 2.77 (1.40–5.50)** 1.89 (1.19–3.02)**
  Eating dinner while watching TV (ref: [2] or less days a week) 1.58 (0.78–3.20) 1.75 (1.08–2.85)* 2.42 (1.19–4.93)** 2.24 (1.38–3.66)***
  Eating fruit and vegetables while watching TV (ref: [2] or less days a week) 0.68 (0.34–1.39) 0.92 (0.57–1.47) 2.75 (1.37–5.52)** 0.86 (0.54–1.37)
  Eating ED snacks while watching TV (ref: [2] or less days a week) 6.22 (2.92–13.27)*** 2.14 (1.31–3.50)** 5.47 (2.70–11.09)*** 11.45 (6.65–20.02***
 Home social environment
  Eating dinner in front of the TV with parents (ref: less than twice a week) 1.67 (0.84–3.32) 1.60 (0.99–2.59) 2.66 (1.38–5.11)** 1.70 (1.06–2.71)*
  Eating breakfast in front of the TV with parents (ref: less than twice a week) 1.56 (0.68–3.58) 1.40 (0.77–2.55) 3.16 (1.55–6.45)** 2.50 (1.44–4.35)***
  Eating snacks in front of the TV with parents (ref: less than twice a week) 4.31 (2.09–8.87)*** 1.69 (1.04–2.72)* 2.65 (1.38–5.08)** 3.99 (2.46–6.47)***
  Watching TV/DVD’s together with parents (ref: less than twice a week) 2.05 (1.03–4.06)* 1.44 (0.89–2.30) 4.17 (2.07–8.38)*** 1.72 (1.08–2.73)*
  Parental food restriction (ref: low – below median score of 2.4) 0.53 (0.26–1.07) 0.52 (0.32–0.84)** 0.78 (0.40–1.54) 0.33 (0.20–0.56)***
  Parental screen-time restriction (ref: low – below median score of 2) 0.46 (0.21–1.00) 0.80 (0.49–1.32) 0.76 (0.39–1.50) 0.43 (0.25–0.71)***
 Home physical environment
  Television in the bedroom (ref: no) 1.88 (0.85–4.15) 1.77 (1.05–2.97)* 1.57 (0.77–3.19) 1.63 (1.01–2.68)*
  Home availability of energy-dense snack foods (ref: low – below median score of 9) 5.83 (2.77–12.96)*** 2.03 (1.18–3.50)** 4.07 (2.01–8.24)*** 9.19 (5.31–15.90)***
  Home availability of fruit and vegetables (ref: low – below median score of 6) 1.76 (0.84–3.68) 1.38 (0.97–2.77) 1.36 (0.70–2.67) 1.55 (0.96–2.51)
  Home accessibility of energy-dense snack foods (ref: low – below median score of 8) 2.07 (0.97–4.40) 1.86 (1.13–3.06)* 1.96 (1.01–3.93)* 8.77 (4.53–16.95)***
  Home accessibility of fruit and vegetables (ref: low – below median score of 4) 0.56 (0.27–1.17) 0.82 (0.50–1.34) 1.61 (0.79–3.27) 1.23 (0.75–2.01)
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001