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Table 2 Bivariate associations between the dependent and independent variables

From: Regional and social differences concerning overweight, participation in health check-ups and vaccination. Analysis of data from a whole birth cohort of 6-year old children in a prosperous German city

  over-weighta incomplete U1-U9 check-upsb incomplete immunizationsc
  n % n % n %
individual level
mother tongue of parentsd       
- German 384 6.71 904 16.18 3.243 58.93
- other 513 17.33 979 37.61 1.292 47.22
p-valuee   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001
visit to Kindergartenf       
- yes 815 9.89 1.737 21.99 4.329 54.96
- no 86 15.36 186 44.60 277 57.59
p-valuee   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.2601
sex of the child       
- boy 483 10.37 962 22.41 2.367 54.94
- girl 450 10.21 992 24.00 2.311 55.45
p-valuee   0.8041   0.0832   0.6422
school district level
single parent householdsg       
- low (1.8 – 3.0%) 240 8.95 519 20.56 1.500 59.06
- medium (3.1 – 3.7%) 329 9.93 651 20.86 1.756 55.98
- high (3.8 – 8.4%) 364 11.84 801 27.91 1.468 50.78
p-valuee   0.0011   <0.0001   <0.0001
'low education households'h       
- low (20.9 – 27.0%) 173 7.26 408 18.09 1.334 59.34
- medium (27.1 – 30.8%) 315 9.97 637 21.35 1.707 56.96
- high (30.9 – 40.9%) 445 12.62 926 28.27 1.683 50.65
p-valuee   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001
  1. a) BMI ≥ 90. percentile
  2. b) at least one of the nine check-ups missing
  3. c) at least one out of the nine vaccinations missing
  4. d) German: both parents with mother tongue German; other: all other parents
  5. e) χ2-test
  6. f) yes: child visited Kindergarten for at least one year; no: all other children
  7. g) percentage of single parent households
  8. h) percentage of persons having the lowest educational level (i.e. 'Hauptschulabschluss')