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Table 2 Associations a of consumption of sweets with mammographic density among all women and by menopausal status

From: Consumption of sweet foods and mammographic breast density: a cross-sectional study

Quartiles* of servings per week All women Premenopausal women Postmenopausal women
  Percent density Absolute density   Percent density Absolute density   Percent density Absolute density
n** % [95% CI]a cm2[95% CI]a n** % [95% CI]a cm2[95% CI]a n** % [95% CI]a cm2[95% CI]a
Sugar-sweetened beverages b        
  0 334 26.3 [24.4-28.1] 31.6 [29.3-34.0] 140 41.8 [38.4-45.1] 42.8 [38.6-47.3] 194 16.6 [14.8-18.5] 22.7 [20.2-25.4]
  0.01-0.43 391 28.5 [26.8-30.2] 34.1 [31.9-36.4] 210 42.5 [39.7-45.2] 45.5 [41.9-49.4] 181 18.8 [16.9-20.9] 24.2 [21.6-27.0]
  0.44-1.69 433 26.8 [25.2-28.4] 31.5 [29.5-33.5] 220 40.4 [37.8-43.1] 43.9 [40.4-47.4] 213 17.0 [15.3-18.8] 21.1 [18.9-23.4]
  >1.69 390 28.8 [27.0-30.7] 35.6 [33.3-38.1] 201 44.0 [41.2-47.0] 51.1 [47.0-55.4] 189 17.1 [15.2-19.1] 22.9 [20.3-25.6]
  P trend   0.172 0.040   0.240 0.007   0.731 0.958
  Spearman r (P)   0.054 (0.038) 0.051 (0.049)   0.049 (0.185) 0.088 (0.016)   0.026 (0.492) 0.013 (0.735)
Sweet foods c        
  0-2.95 380 27.9 [26.1-29.8] 33.9 [31.6-36.4] 219 43.5 [40.7-46.4] 47.4 [43.6-51.4] 161 16.2 [14.2-18.3] 22.2 [19.5-25.1]
  2.96-6.79 390 26.7 [25.1-28.5] 32.1 [29.9-34.3] 231 42.2 [39.6-44.7] 45.2 [41.7-48.7] 159 15.9 [14.0-17.9] 21.0 [18.4-23.8]
  6.80-11.90 383 28.1 [26.4-29.9] 34.4 [32.2-36.7] 195 43.0 [40.2-45.9] 48.9 [44.9-53.0] 188 17.4 [15.6-19.3] 22.7 [20.3-25.3]
  >11.90 389 27.9 [26.1-29.9] 32.7 [30.3-35.2] 129 38.8 [35.1-42.5] 41.2 [36.6-46.1] 260 18.8 [17.0-20.7] 23.7 [21.3-26.1]
  P trend   0.717 0.748   0.065 0.077   0.036 0.266
  Spearman r (P)   0.008 (0.772) -0.006 (0.829)   -0.052 (0.161) -0.044 (0.233)   0.073 (0.048) 0.043 (0.242)
Spoonsful of sugar added d        
  0-0.56 428 27.0 [25.4-28.7] 32.5 [30.4-34.6] 234 42.1 [39.4-44.7] 44.2 [40.7-47.8] 194 17.2 [15.3-19.1] 23.0 [20.5-25.7]
  0.57-3.01 392 26.7 [25.0-28.4] 32.3 [30.2-34.6] 211 41.5 [38.8-44.2] 46.2 [42.6-50.0] 181 16.4 [14.6-18.4] 21.3 [18.9-23.9]
  3.02-9.31 327 28.6 [26.7-30.5] 34.2 [31.8-36.7] 148 41.8 [38.6-45.0] 46.3 [41.9-50.8] 179 18.2 [16.2-20.2] 23.3 [20.8-26.1]
  >9.31 407 28.4 [26.7-30.2] 34.2 [32.0-36.5] 183 43.4 [40.4-46.3] 48.1 [44.1-52.3] 224 17.5 [15.8-19.4] 22.8 [20.5-25.3]
  P trend   0.164 0.211   0.415 0.208   0.594 0.807
  Spearman r (P)   0.030 (0.241) 0.026 (0.311)   0.034 (0.362) 0.055 (0.138)   0.016 (0.661) 0.003 (0.929)
Total of all sweet items        
  0-7.14 380 26.2 [24.5-28.1] 31.7 [29.4-34.1] 219 41.3 [38.5-44.0] 43.5 [39.9-47.3] 161 16.0 [14.0-18.2] 21.8 [19.0-24.8]
  7.15-14.0 383 29.1 [27.4-31.0] 34.9 [32.7-37.3] 213 45.5 [42.8-48.2] 49.3 [45.6-53.2] 170 17.9 [15.9-20.0] 23.1 [20.5-25.9]
  14.01-26.25 384 27.7 [25.9-29.4] 33.4 [31.2-35.7] 188 40.2 [37.3-43.1] 46.1 [42.2-50.2] 196 17.8 [16.0-19.8] 22.8 [20.4-25.4]
  >26.25 387 27.6 [25.8-29.5] 32.9 [30.6-35.4] 149 41.5 [38.0-45.0] 44.7 [40.2-49.6] 238 17.4 [15.6-19.3] 22.7 [20.3-25.2]
  P trend   0.740 0.909   0.503 0.830   0.536 0.794
  Spearman r (P)   0.026 (0.311) 0.017 (0.513)   0.001 (0.984) 0.019 (0.609)   0.044 (0.238) 0.019 (0.604)
  1. aAll analyses (linear models and Spearman correlations) were adjusted for: Total caloric intake per day, age at mammography, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, menopausal status (for total women only), age at menarche, parity, number of full-term pregnancies, age at first full-term pregnancy, duration of use of hormonal contraceptive, duration of use of hormonal therapy, alcohol intake, physical activity, family history of breast cancer, number of breast biopsies, smoking status, education and breastfeeding. Percent and absolute density were square root-transformed for all analyses, except for percent density among premenopausal, to obtain an approximate normal distribution. Means are presented as back-transformed values for these analyses.
  2. bIncluding cola with sugar, cola with sugar but caffeine free, other carbonated beverage with sugar and sweet fruits juice.
  3. cIncluding ice cream, chocolate, candy with chocolate, candy, homemade cookie, commercial cookie, brownie, donut, homemade cake, commercial cake, homemade pie, commercial pie, other homemade pastries and other commercial pastries.
  4. dIncluding teaspoons of sugar added to beverages and foods and tablespoons of jam, honey and syrup.
  5. *Quartiles are made using all women.
  6. **Number do not add up because of missing data.
  7. The statistically significant results are in bold.
  8. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, r correlation, P trend  p-value for linear contrast test.
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