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Table 2 Adjusted ratios (95% CI) of outcome risk factor* variables by area of residence for men

From: A cross-sectional study of geographic differences in health risk factors among young Australian adults: The role of socioeconomic position

  Metropolitana Non-metropolitan
   Model adjusted for age Model adjusted for age and individual SEP factors Model adjusted for age, individual SEP factors and area-level disadvantage
  Mean (n or SD) Mean (n or SD) Ratio (95% CI) Ratio (95% CI) Ratio (95% CI)
Smoking status (n = 1144)
 Never 57.3% (484) 56.0% (168)    
 Ex-smoker 17.6% (149) 20.0% (60) 1.12 (0.86, 1.47) 1.09 (0.83, 1.43)c 1.08 (0.82, 1.42)
 Current smoker 25.0% (211) 24.0% (72) 0.96 (0.76, 1.21) 0.84 (0.67, 1.05)c 0.86 (0.69, 1.08)
Alcohol consumption (n = 1135)
 None 8.6% (72) 8.7% (26)    
 20gm/day or less 75.8% (633) 72.7% (218) 0.96 (0.89, 1.04) 0.96 (0.89, 1.04)d 0.97 (0.89, 1.05)
 More than 20gm/day 15.6% (130) 18.6% (56) 1.20 (0.90, 1.59) 1.20 (0.91, 1.58)d 1.25 (0.95, 1.65)
BMI (n = 1135)
 Not overweight 41.0% (345) 34.7% (102)    
 Overweight 44.2% (372) 47.3% (139) 1.05 (0.91, 1.21) 1.02 (0.89, 1.18)e 1.03 (0.89, 1.19)
 Obese 14.8% (124) 18.0% (53) 1.21 (0.90, 1.62) 1.08 (0.81, 1.44)e 1.05 (0.79, 1.40)
Physical activity (mins/week) (n = 1044)
 Occupationalb 84.1 (227.1) 208.2 (395.3) 2.45 (1.70, 3.21) 1.83 (1.29, 2.37) d 1.74 (1.21, 2.28)
 Domesticb 92.9 (141.9) 132.8 (174.1) 1.40 (1.13, 1.67) 1.34 (1.08, 1.60) d 1.31 (1.05, 1.57)
 Active Commutingb 21.6 (64.5) 11.9 (41.4) 0.55 (0.29, 0.81) 0.63 (0.34, 0.92) d 0.61 (0.32, 0.90)
 Leisure timeb 91.1 (163.5) 65.7 (131.8) 0.73 (0.53, 0.93) 0.84 (0.62, 1.06)d 0.88 (0.64, 1.11)
Steps per day (n = 903)b 8519.8 (3374.3) 9378.9 (3490.0) 1.10 (1.04, 1.16) 1.07 (1.01, 1.13) d 1.07 (1.01, 1.13)
Dietary guideline met (n = 1096)
 Less than 2 guidelines 42.4% (341) 49.5% (144)    
 2 or more guidelines (up to 5) 57.6% (464) 50.5% (147) 0.87 (0.76, 0.99) 0.88 (0.78, 0.99) f 0.88 (0.77, 0.99)
Depression (n = 929)
 Negative 94.6% (695) 93.8% (182)    
 Positive 5.4% (40) 6.2% (12) 1.13 (0.61, 2.12) 1.11 (0.59, 2.07)c 1.13 (0.59, 2.14)
Anxiety (n = 929)
 Negative 93.5% (687) 92.8% (180)    
 Positive 6.5% (48) 7.2% (14) 1.10 (0.62, 1.96) 1.22 (0.68, 2.18)e 1.16 (0.63, 2.10)
  1. CI: confidence interval; ref: referent; BMI: body mass index.
  2. All bolded values are statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
  3. *Sample sizes vary due to missing data for outcome variables (range 1,144 to 903).
  4. aMetropolitan is the reference category.
  5. bData is summarised as mean (SD) and as ratios of means (95% CI).
  6. cAdjusted for own highest level of education, occupation, marital status.
  7. dAdjusted for own highest level of education, occupation.
  8. eAdjusted for own highest level of education, occupation, marital status, employment status.
  9. fAdjusted for own highest level of education.