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Table 2 Demographic characteristics of individuals using self-treatment, by year (%)

From: Use of and factors associated with self-treatment in China

Variables 1993 1998 2003 2008 χ 2
Gender:      
 Male 19.8 28.1 35.5 26.9 2.2
 Female 20.3 28.6 35.9 27.2  
χ 2 1.1 1.0 0.4 0.6  
Age:      
 15–24 years 15.6 22.1 28.0 20.4 910.0**
 25-44 years old 19.9 28.0 33.6 27.0 363.8**
 45-64 years old 23.6 31.7 37.9 29.6 162.6**
 ≥65 years old 26.0 33.1 40.2 26.7 457.5**
χ 2 263.2** 273.5** 211.6** 145.1**  
Marriage:      
 Unmarried 21.6 30.4 32.8 28.1 156.0**
 Married 21.8 30.3 37.1 27.9 21.9**
 Divorced 26.9 32.6 41.1 28.1 5.4
 Widowed 24.7 31.5 38.3 28.7 87.0**
χ 2 12.3** 2.1 15.6** 1.3  
Education:      
 Illiterate or semi-illiterate 19.2 25.6 32.7 26.7 64.0**
 Primary/junior school 21.7 29.5 37.0 28.6 127.5**
 High or technical school 30.1 40.7 44.8 28.5 89.8**
 College or university and above 31.3 44.5 49.1 27.8  
χ 2 175.1** 359.9** 188.4** 9.5*  
Profession:      
 Unemployed 17.4 32.6 43.0 29.9 793.7**
 Worker 28.8 42.2 44.3 30.0 2400.0**
 Farmer 15.2 21.5 31.3 26.3 1000.0**
 Retired 34.6 38.8 49.6 26.0 1500.0**
χ 2 796.0** 1000.0** 572.5** 49.6**  
Family members:      
 1–2 persons 24.1 33.2 40.8 28.5 207.1**
 3-4 persons 21.7 30.9 38.0 27.7 312.7**
 ≥5 persons 17.5 23.4 31.7 24.5 581.9**
χ 2 86.8** 211.5** 120.4** 31.5**  
  1. *Significant at 5%. **Significant at 1%.