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Infectious disease epidemiology

This section aims to publish studies on the epidemiology of infectious diseases and the use of public health interventions for their control.

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  1. New York City (NYC) was the epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic, and is home to underserved populations with higher prevalence of chronic conditions that put them in danger of more serious infection. Little is ...

    Authors: Wil Lieberman-Cribbin, Naomi Alpert, Raja Flores and Emanuela Taioli

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1452

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Emerging and reemerging pathogens are global challenges for public health and the pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019is a reemerging case of an infectious disease caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-C...

    Authors: Amul Shrestha, Tek Bahadur Thapa, Mahendra Giri, Sanjiv Kumar, Sakil Dhobi, Haikali Thapa, Pawan Prakash Dhami, Arun Shahi, Ajita Ghimire and Ela Singh Rathaur

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1424

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Self testing for HIV is a targeted intervention with the potential to increase the access, uptake and frequency of HIV testing and more effectively reach the undiagnosed, especially in priority populations. Th...

    Authors: Richard A. Galli, Jason M. Lo Hog Tian, Michelle Sumner-Williams, Kristin McBain, Emal Stanizai, Wangari Tharao, Muna Aden, Heather Jamieson, Mark Da Silva, Anne-Fanny Vassal, Lorie Guilbault, Laurie Ireland, Kim Witges, Alexandra King, Kehinde Ametepee, Nathan J. Lachowsky…

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1421

    Content type: Research article

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  4. People living with HIV/AIDS not only require effective treatment for the alleviation of physical discomfort but also require social support to help them address difficulties in life and relieve their psycholog...

    Authors: Yi Li, Xiao-Wen Zhang, Bin Liao, Jun Liang, Wen-Jie He, Jun Liu, Yao Yang, Yun-Hai Zhang, Tao Ma and Jing-Ying Wang

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1413

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Antimicrobial resistance is a global health emergency. Persons colonized with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) are at risk for developing subsequent multidrug-resistant infections, as colonization represe...

    Authors: Aditya Sharma, Ulzii-Orishikh Luvsansharav, Prabasaj Paul, Joseph D. Lutgring, Douglas R. Call, Sylvia Omulo, Kayla Laserson, Rafael Araos, Jose M. Munita, Jennifer Verani, Fahmida Chowdhury, Syeda Mah-E Muneer, Andres Espinosa-Bode, Brooke Ramay, Celia Cordon-Rosales, C. P. Girish Kumar…

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1412

    Content type: Study protocol

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  6. In China, Guangdong and Yunnan are the two most dengue-affected provinces. This study aimed to compare the epidemiological characteristics of dengue fever in Guangdong and Yunnan during 2004–2018.

    Authors: Yujuan Yue, Qiyong Liu, Xiaobo Liu, Haixia Wu and Mingfang Xu

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1389

    Content type: Research article

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  7. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged initially in China in December 2019 causing the COVID-19 disease, which quickly spread worldwide. Iran was one of the first countries ou...

    Authors: Shahab MohammadEbrahimi, Alireza Mohammadi, Robert Bergquist, Fatemeh Dolatkhah, Mahsa Olia, Ayoub Tavakolian, Elahe Pishgar and Behzad Kiani

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1373

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Disparate racial/ethnic burdens of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may be attributable to higher susceptibility to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or to factors su...

    Authors: Alan P. Pan, Osman Khan, Jennifer R. Meeks, Marc L. Boom, Faisal N. Masud, Julia D. Andrieni, Robert A. Phillips, Yordanos M. Tiruneh, Bita A. Kash and Farhaan S. Vahidy

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1330

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Measles accounts for high morbidity and mortality in children, especially in developing countries. In 2017, about 11,190 measles cases were recorded in Nigeria, including Bauchi State. The aim of this study wa...

    Authors: Polycarp Uchechukwu Ori, Ayo Adebowale, Chukwuma David Umeokonkwo, Ugochukwu Osigwe and Muhammad Shakir Balogun

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1311

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Surveillance strategies are critical to cope with the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and to evaluate, as well as adjust government-imposed countermeasures. Incidence estimates are widely based on laboratory confi...

    Authors: Max Oberste, Lynn-Marie Pusch, Rebecca Roth, Kija Shah-Hosseini, Felix Dewald, Claudia Müller, Luise Stach von Goltzheim, Clara Lehmann, Michael Buess, Anna Wolff, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Gerhard Wiesmüller, Florian Klein, Martin Hellmich and Florian Neuhann

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1295

    Content type: Study protocol

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  11. Despite efforts made to reduce the spread of the human immune-deficiency virus (HIV), its testing coverage remains low in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Besides, information on factors associated with...

    Authors: Misganaw Gebrie Worku, Getayeneh Antehunegn Tesema and Achamyeleh Birhanu Teshale

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1262

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Diarrhea is the second leading cause of mortality in children under 5 years of age globally, and the risk of death increases with practices such as restriction of fluid intake and inappropriate use of antibiot...

    Authors: Hindum Lanyero, Moses Ocan, Celestino Obua, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg, Sarah Nanzigu, Agaba Katureebe, Joan N. Kalyango and Jaran Eriksen

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1254

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Automated Emergency Department syndromic surveillance systems (ED-SyS) are useful tools in routine surveillance activities and during mass gathering events to rapidly detect public health threats. To improve t...

    Authors: Etran Bouchouar, Benjamin M. Hetman and Brendan Hanley

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1247

    Content type: Technical advance

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  14. Zika virus (ZIKV) infection caused outbreak in Brazil, in 2015 and 2016. Disorganized urban growth, facilitates the concentration of numerous susceptible and infected individuals. It is useful to understand th...

    Authors: Carlos Eduardo Raymundo and Roberto de Andrade Medronho

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1199

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Nigeria, the last endemic country in the WHO African Region, was certified free of Wild Polio Virus (WPV) in 2020. However, due to low immunity in some communities in Sokoto, outbreaks of the circulating Vacci...

    Authors: Ismail Abdullateef Raji, Auwal Usman Abubakar, Abdulrahman Ahmad, Saheed Gidado, Abdulhakeem Abayomi Olorukooba, Bola Biliaminu Lawal, Chukwuma David Umeokonkwo and Muhammad Balogun

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1148

    Content type: Research article

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  16. In China, enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major etiological agents of hand foot mouth disease that poses severe risks to children’s health. Since 2015, three inactivated EV71 vaccines have been approved for use. ...

    Authors: Lixia Ye, Jieping Chen, Ting Fang, Rui Ma, Jianmei Wang, Xingqiang Pan, Hongjun Dong and Guozhang Xu

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1118

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Human plague cases, mainly in the bubonic form, occur annually in endemic regions of the central highlands of Madagascar. The aim of this study was to compare the dynamics of the epidemiological features of th...

    Authors: Sitraka Rakotosamimanana, Daouda Kassie, François Taglioni, Josélyne Ramamonjisoa, Fanjasoa Rakotomanana and Minoarisoa Rajerison

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1112

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Alternative models for sustainable antiretroviral treatment (ART) delivery are necessary to meet the increasing demand to maintain population-wide ART for all people living with HIV (PLHIV) in sub-Saharan Afri...

    Authors: Mohammed Limbada, Geiske Zijlstra, David Macleod, Helen Ayles and Sarah Fidler

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1110

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Effective reduction of tuberculosis (TB) requires information on the distribution of TB incidence rate across time and location. This study aims to identify the spatio-temporal pattern of TB incidence rate in ...

    Authors: Behzad Kiani, Amene Raouf Rahmati, Robert Bergquist, Soheil Hashtarkhani, Neda Firouraghi, Nasser Bagheri, Elham Moghaddas and Alireza Mohammadi

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1093

    Content type: Research article

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  20. To predict the trend of AIDS in specific age groups and to determine the objective population for AIDS screening, this study explored the three transmission routes and characterized each patient group using th...

    Authors: Zhenzhen Lu, Weidong Ji, Yi Yin, Xinye Jin, Lu Wang, Zhongjie Li, Ning Wang, Kai Wang and Zhihang Peng

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1077

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the most widely used malaria prevention and control intervention in Africa. However, their effectiveness may vary depending on their local geographic coverage, owners...

    Authors: Peter N. Ng’ang’a, Polycarp Aduogo and Clifford M. Mutero

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1046

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Multiple large outbreaks of COVID-19 have been documented in prisons and jails across regions of the world, with hazardous environmental conditions amplify the risks of exposure for both incarcerated people an...

    Authors: Kathryn M. Nowotny, Kapriske Seide and Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1036

    Content type: Research article

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  23. The implementation of core capacities as stated in the International Health Regulations (IHR) is far from complete, and, as the COVID-19 pandemic shows, the spreading of infectious diseases through points of e...

    Authors: Doret de Rooij, Evelien Belfroid, Christos Hadjichristodoulou, Varvara A. Mouchtouri, Jörg Raab and Aura Timen

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1013

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Access to tailored HIV prevention services remains limited for West African MSM. We assessed adherence to quarterly HIV prevention services and its impact on HIV incidence in MSM followed up in four cities in ...

    Authors: Ter Tiero Elias Dah, Issifou Yaya, Luis Sagaon-Teyssier, Alou Coulibaly, Malan Jean-Baptiste Kouamé, Mawuényégan Kouamivi Agboyibor, Kader Maiga, Issa Traoré, Marion Mora, Paméla Palvadeau, Daniela Rojas-Castro, Fodié Diallo, Ephrem Mensah, Camille Anoma, Bintou Dembélé Keita, Bruno Spire…

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:972

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The widespread pandemic of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses an unprecedented global health crisis. In the United States (US), different state governments have adopted various combinations of non...

    Authors: Xiaoshuang Liu, Xiao Xu, Guanqiao Li, Xian Xu, Yuyao Sun, Fei Wang, Xuanling Shi, Xiang Li, Guotong Xie and Linqi Zhang

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:965

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Prior to Wuhan lock-down in 2020, chunyun, the largest population mobility on this planet, had begun. We quantified impact of Wuhan lock-down on COVID-19 spread during chunyun across the nation.

    Authors: Yi Hu, Lingcai Kong, Tong Yao, Xinda Chen and Wei Du

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:825

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The prevalence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) in southwest China is still increasing. This study aimed to investigate the trend in HIV incidence and its associated risk factors among MSM in Cheng...

    Authors: Xinyi You, Stuart Gilmour, Wangnan Cao, Joseph Tak-fai Lau, Chun Hao, Jing Gu, Phuong Mai Le, Liping Peng, Dannuo Wei, Yang Deng, Xiaodong Wang, Huachun Zou, Jibin Li, Yuantao Hao and Jinghua Li

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:802

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Italy has been the first European country to be affected by the COVID-19 epidemic which started out at the end of February. In this report, we focus our attention on the Veneto Region, in the North-East of Ita...

    Authors: Elisa Gallo, Ilaria Prosepe, Giulia Lorenzoni, Aslihan Şentürk Acar, Corrado Lanera, Paola Berchialla, Danila Azzolina and Dario Gregori

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:797

    Content type: Research article

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  29. We investigated college students’ attitude and compliance towards a prevention strategy involving use of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

    Authors: Dong Shen, Dan Liu, Miaochun Cai, Peiliang Chen, Zhenghe Wang, Yujie Zhang, Zhihao Li, Xiru Zhang, Xianbo Wu, Xingfen Yang and Chen Mao

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:796

    Content type: Research article

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  30. To understand operational challenges involved with responding to US measles outbreaks in 2017–19 and identify applicable lessons in order to inform preparedness and response operations for future outbreaks, pa...

    Authors: Elena K. Martin, Matthew P. Shearer, Marc Trotochaud and Jennifer B. Nuzzo

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:620

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Communities with low vaccination rates are at greater risk during outbreaks of vaccine preventable diseases. Most Australian parents support vaccines, but some refuse and are often judged harshly by their comm...

    Authors: Penelope Robinson, Kerrie Wiley and Chris Degeling

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:578

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Given the rampant HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chengdu, southwest China, Treat All policy, defined as immediate antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation after HIV diagnosis, was impleme...

    Authors: Chenyao Wu, Baiyang Zhang, Zhen Dai, Qianwen Zheng, Zhenhua Duan, Qinying He and Cairong Zhu

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:689

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Seasonality in tuberculosis (TB) has been found in different parts of the world, showing a peak in spring/summer and a trough in autumn/winter. The evidence is less clear which factors drive seasonality. It wa...

    Authors: Tanja Charles, Matthias Eckardt, Basel Karo, Walter Haas and Stefan Kröger

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:661

    Content type: Research article

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  34. South Africa has a persistent burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Male circumcision has been shown to be effective in preventing HIV and STIs, but data are scarce on the protective effect of circ...

    Authors: Blanchard Mbay Iyemosolo, Tawanda Chivese and Tonya M. Esterhuizen

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:656

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Recent research has been conducted by various countries and regions on the impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) on reducing the spread of COVID19. This study evaluates the tradeoffs between potent...

    Authors: Buse Eylul Oruc, Arden Baxter, Pinar Keskinocak, John Asplund and Nicoleta Serban

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:655

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted a lockdown in many countries to control the exponential spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, hereby reducing the time-varying basic reproduction number (Rt) to below one. Governments...

    Authors: Koen Deforche, Jurgen Vercauteren, Viktor Müller and Anne-Mieke Vandamme

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:654

    Content type: Research article

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  37. In view of the ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, it remains unclear whether the severity of illness and time interval from symptom onset to release from quarantine differ between cases that orig...

    Authors: Suochen Tian, Min Wu, Zhenqin Chang, Yunxia Wang, Guijie Zhou, Wenming Zhang, Junmin Xing, Hui Tian, Xihong Zhang, Xiuli Zou, Lina Zhang, Mingxin Liu, Juan Chen, Jian Han, Kang Ning, Shuangfeng Chen…

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:647

    Content type: Research article

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  38. In this study we cluster the districts of India in terms of the spread of COVID-19 and related variables such as population density and the number of specialty hospitals. Simulation using a compartment model i...

    Authors: Pooja Sengupta, Bhaswati Ganguli, Sugata SenRoy and Aditya Chatterjee

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:631

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Despite scientific evidence that climate change has profound and far reaching implications for public health, translating this knowledge in a manner that supports citizen engagement, applied decision-making, a...

    Authors: Laura Cameron, Rhéa Rocque, Kailey Penner and Ian Mauro

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:617

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Applying heavy nationwide restrictions is a powerful method to curtail COVID-19 transmission but poses a significant humanitarian and economic crisis. Thus, it is essential to improve our understanding of COVI...

    Authors: Matan Yechezkel, Amit Weiss, Idan Rejwan, Edan Shahmoon, Shachaf Ben-Gal and Dan Yamin

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:596

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 pandemic a public health emergency of international concern. South Africa, like many other countries, initiated a multifaceted national response to the...

    Authors: Sibusiso Sifunda, Tholang Mokhele, Thabang Manyaapelo, Natisha Dukhi, Ronel Sewpaul, Whadi-Ah Parker, Saahier Parker, Inbarani Naidoo, Sean Jooste, Shandir Ramlagan, Razia Gaida, Musawenkosi Mabaso, Khangelani Zuma and Priscilla Reddy

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:580

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV, followed by effective care including antiretroviral therapy (ART), reduces infant mortality by 76% and HIV progression by 75%. In 2015, 50% of 1.2 million HIV-exposed infan...

    Authors: Douglas Gaitho, Freda Kinoti, Lawrence Mwaniki, Diana Kemunto, Victor Ogoti, Catherine Njigua, Elizabeth Kubo, Agnes Langat and Jared Mecha

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:569

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Governments worldwide recommended unprecedented measures to contain the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As pressure mounted...

    Authors: Mark É. Czeisler, Mark E. Howard, Rebecca Robbins, Laura K. Barger, Elise R. Facer-Childs, Shantha M. W. Rajaratnam and Charles A. Czeisler

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:503

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Screening, condom use and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) are among existing HIV prevention strategies. However, efficient use of these strategies requires that patients have an adequate knowledge of HIV trans...

    Authors: Christelle Duteil, Elise de La Rochebrochard, Prescillia Piron, Christophe Segouin and Pénélope Troude

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:494

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Characterising the size and distribution of the population at risk of severe COVID-19 is vital for effective policy and planning. Older age, and underlying health conditions, are associated with higher risk of...

    Authors: Jemma L. Walker, Daniel J. Grint, Helen Strongman, Rosalind M. Eggo, Maria Peppa, Caroline Minassian, Kathryn E. Mansfield, Christopher T. Rentsch, Ian J. Douglas, Rohini Mathur, Angel Y. S. Wong, Jennifer K. Quint, Nick Andrews, Jamie Lopez Bernal, J. Anthony Scott, Mary Ramsay…

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:484

    Content type: Research article

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