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Health policies, systems and management in low and middle-income countries

This section aims to publish studies looking at the impact of health policies, practices and interventions on communities in low and middle-income countries.

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  1. The Tobacco Industry (henceforth TI) yearns to portray itself as being “socially responsible” and fights for the decision-making positions; that are it used to deter, delay or dilute tobacco control measures. ...

    Authors: Sonu Goel, Sitanshu Sekhar Kar, Madhur Verma, Parthibane Sivanantham, Bijay Nanda Naik and Deepti Gupta

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1855

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Food policies and environment (availability, accessibility, affordability, marketing) in and around educational institutes can influence food choices and behaviours of children and adolescents.

    Authors: Shalini Bassi, Deepika Bahl, Monika Arora, Fikru Tesfaye Tullu, Sakshi Dudeja and Rachita Gupta

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1767

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Malnutrition was the main cause of death among children below 5 years in every state of India in 2017. Despite several flagship programmes and schemes implemented by the Government of India, the latest edition...

    Authors: Rayhan Sk, Anuradha Banerjee and Md Juel Rana

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1690

    Content type: Research article

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  4. In the last three decades, Ghana has championed the objectives of Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiatives to provide pregnant women and nursing mothers with the skills and support systems necessary for attaining op...

    Authors: Jacqueline Nkrumah, Aaron Asibi Abuosi and Rodney Buadi Nkrumah

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1647

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Lockdown policies were widely adopted during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic to control the spread of the virus before vaccines became available. These policies had significant economic impact...

    Authors: Ying Qian, Wei Xie, Jidi Zhao, Ming Xue, Shiyong Liu, Lei Wang, Wanglai Li, Luojia Dai and Yuyang Cai

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1638

    Content type: Research article

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  6. COVID-19 has hit the world in an unprecedented way causing serious repercussions on several aspects of our life. Multiple determinants have affected various nations’ level of success in their responses towards...

    Authors: Nazih A. Bizri, Walid Alam, Tala Mobayed, Hani Tamim, Maha Makki and Umayya Mushrrafieh

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1590

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Vaccination has important consequences for childhood development, mortality, and inequalities in health and well-being. This research explores the trend of vaccinations coverage from 1993 to 2014 and determine...

    Authors: Md. Moyazzem Hossain, Md. Abdus Sobhan, Azizur Rahman, Sanzida Sharmin Flora and Zahida Sultana Irin

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1578

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The SMS text Adherence suppoRt for people with type 2 diabetes (StAR2D) intervention is a pragmatic randomised controlled trial, testing the effectiveness of brief text messaging for improving clinical outcome...

    Authors: N. Leon, H. Namadingo, S. Cooper, K. Bobrow, C. Mwantisi, M. Nyasulu, N. Sicwebu, A. Crampin, N. Levitt and A. Farmer

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1576

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Schools provide an opportunity for developing strategies to create healthy food environments for children. The present study aimed to analyze the Healthy School Canteen (HSC) policy and identify challenges of ...

    Authors: Mina Babashahi, Nasrin Omidvar, Hassan Joulaei, Azizollaah Zargaraan, Farid Zayeri, Elnaz Veisi, Azam Doustmohammadian and Roya Kelishadi

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1566

    Content type: Research article

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  10. A growing number of studies report increased concussion-related health care utilization in recent years, but factors impacting care-seeking behaviors among youth following a concussion are not well described. ...

    Authors: Chris Radlicz, Kenneth Jackson, Amanda Hautmann, Junxin Shi and Jingzhen Yang

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1565

    Content type: Research article

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  11. A Cross-sectional Rapid Situational Assessment of People Who Inject Drug (PWIDs) applying Respondent Driven sampling techniques (RDS) was used to recruit subjects/participants in a study aimed at assessing HIV...

    Authors: Francis O. Oguya, Patrick R. Kenya, Francisca Ongecha, Patrick Mureithi, Helgar Musyoka, Nicholas Muraguri, Ben Mundia, Caleb Angira, Mohammed Shose, Taib A. Basheeb, Abdalla Ahmed Mohamed, John P. Oyore, Otieno G. Ochieng, Gabriel O. Dida, Saade Abdalla and Reychard Abdool

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1549

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) is a voluntary social health insurance program launched in 2002 for rural Chinese residents where 80% of people were without health insurance of any kind. Over time, s...

    Authors: Dian Luo, Jing Deng and Edmund R. Becker

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1519

    Content type: Research article

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  13. There is a strong policy impetus for the One Health cross-sectoral approach to address the complex challenge of zoonotic diseases, particularly in low/lower middle income countries (LMICs). Yet the implementat...

    Authors: F. A. Asaaga, J. C. Young, M. A. Oommen, R. Chandarana, J. August, J. Joshi, M. M. Chanda, A. T. Vanak, P. N. Srinivas, S. L. Hoti, T. Seshadri and B. V. Purse

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1517

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer amongst women globally and it accounts for the majority of cancer deaths among females in Zimbabwe. The objective of this midterm review analysis was to identif...

    Authors: Oscar Tapera, Anna M. Nyakabau, Ndabaningi Simango, Bothwell T. Guzha, Shamiso Jombo-Nyakuwa, Eunice Takawira, Angeline Mapanga, Davidzoyashe Makosa and Bernard Madzima

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1478

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Dental healthcare is the costliest and single most source of the financial barrier to seeking and use of needed healthcare. Hence, this study aims to analyses impact of out-of-pocket (OOP) payments for dental ...

    Authors: Abraha Woldemichael, Satar Rezaei, Ali Kazemi Karyani, Mohammad Ebrahimi, Shahin Soltani and Abbas Aghaei

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1474

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Half of global child deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding child mortality patterns and risk factors will help inform interventions to reduce this heavy toll. The Nanoro Health and Demographic Surv...

    Authors: Navideh Noori, Karim Derra, Innocent Valea, Assaf P. Oron, Aminata Welgo, Toussaint Rouamba, Palwende Romuald Boua, Athanase M. Somé, Eli Rouamba, Edward Wenger, Hermann Sorgho, Halidou Tinto and Andre Lin Ouédraogo

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1425

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Multimorbidity is a significant contributor to inequalities in healthcare and has become a major unaddressed challenge for the health system in China. The aim of this study is to assess the socio-demographic d...

    Authors: Yang Zhao, Siqi Zhao, Lin Zhang, Tilahun Nigatu Haregu and Haipeng Wang

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1380

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Unmet need for postpartum contraception is high. Integration of family planning with routine child immunization services may help to satisfy unmet need. However, evidence about the determinants and effects of ...

    Authors: Kate L. Sheahan, Ilene S. Speizer, Jennifer Orgill-Meyer, Siân Curtis, Morris Weinberger, John Paul and Antonia V. Bennett

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1379

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Marketing of foods and non-alcoholic beverages high in saturated fats, trans-fatty acids, free sugars, or salt (“unhealthy foods”) to children is contributing to increasing child obesity. However, many countri...

    Authors: Laura Fisher, Minakshi Dahal, Sarah Hawkes, Mahesh Puri and Kent Buse

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1351

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Breast cancer patients in sub-Saharan Africa experience long time intervals between their first presentation to a health care facility and the start of cancer treatment. The role of the health system in the in...

    Authors: Gloria Gbenonsi, Mouna Boucham, Zakaria Belrhiti, Chakib Nejjari, Inge Huybrechts and Mohamed Khalis

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1325

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD) is a disease of poverty that is neglected in developing countries, including South Africa. Lack of adequate evidence regarding the cost of RHD care has hindered national and inter...

    Authors: Assegid G. Hellebo, Liesl J. Zuhlke, David A. Watkins and Olufunke Alaba

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1303

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Evidence is limited on racial/ethnic group disparities in multimorbidity and associated health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries hampering effective policies and clinical interventions to address he...

    Authors: Thomas Hone, Jonathan Stokes, Anete Trajman, Valeria Saraceni, Claudia Medina Coeli, Davide Rasella, Betina Durovni and Christopher Millett

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1287

    Content type: Research article

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  23. About 30% of children < 5 years old are estimated to experience vitamin A deficiency worldwide. Globally, vitamin A deficiency can be reduced by five major interventions: supplementation, dietary modification,...

    Authors: Golnaz Rajaeieh, Amirhossein Takian, Naser Kalantari and Fatemeh Mohammadi-Nasrabadi

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1234

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Following the COVID-19 pandemic, school closures were part of the global public health response to limit community spread of the virus. In recent times, there has been an emphasis on safe school re-opening. Th...

    Authors: Usman A. Sanni, Uduak M. Offiong, Emmanuel A. Anigilaje, Kareem I. Airede and Abdulazeez Imam

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1214

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Transparent and accessible reporting of COVID-19 data is critical for public health efforts. Each Indian state has its own mechanism for reporting COVID-19 data, and the quality of their reporting has not been...

    Authors: Varun Vasudevan, Abeynaya Gnanasekaran, Varsha Sankar, Siddarth A. Vasudevan and James Zou

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1211

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Irrational household storage of medicines is a world-wide problem, which triggers medicine wastage as well as its associated harms. This study aimed to include all available evidences from literature to perfor...

    Authors: Adineh Jafarzadeh, Alireza Mahboub-Ahari, Moslem Najafi, Mahmood Yousefi and Koustuv Dalal

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1127

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Health experts agree that widespread use of safe and effective vaccines will rapidly contain the COVID-19 pandemic. The big question is whether these vaccines can easily be accepted by their end-users. Our stu...

    Authors: Isaac Echoru, Patricia Decanar Ajambo, Emmanuel Keirania and Edmund E. M. Bukenya

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1106

    Content type: Research article

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  28. More than 75% of neonatal deaths occurred in the first weeks of life as a result of adverse birth outcomes. Low birth weight, preterm births are associated with a variety of acute and long-term complications. ...

    Authors: Koku Sisay Tamirat, Malede Mequanent Sisay, Getayeneh Antehunegn Tesema and Zemenu Tadesse Tessema

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1092

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Limited information is available on how mobile health (mHealth) application (app) technology on mother and child health (MCH) is developed. This research aimed (a) to explore the process of developing mobile a...

    Authors: Fedri Ruluwedrata Rinawan, Ari Indra Susanti, Indah Amelia, Mulya Nurmansyah Ardisasmita, Widarti, Rima Kusumah Dewi, Dani Ferdian, Wanda Gusdya Purnama and Ayi Purbasari

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:1024

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Country-wide urbanization in Uganda has continued amidst institutional challenges. Previous interventions in the water and sanitation sector have not addressed the underlying issues of a poorly managed urbaniz...

    Authors: Japheth Nkiriyehe Kwiringira, Robert Kabumbuli, Henry Zakumumpa, James Mugisha, Mathias Akugizibwe, Paulino Ariho and Joseph Rujumba

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:992

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Improving maternal health has been a primary goal of international health agencies for many years, with the aim of reducing maternal and child deaths and improving access to antenatal care (ANC) services, part...

    Authors: B. W. Bresnahan, E. Vodicka, J. B. Babigumira, A. M. Malik, F. Yego, A. Lokangaka, B. M. Chitah, Z. Bauer, H. Chavez, J. L. Moore, L. P. Garrison, J. O. Swanson, D. Swanson, E. M. McClure, R. L. Goldenberg, F. Esamai…

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:952

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Elevated blood pressure is the leading risk factor for global mortality. While it is known that there exist differences between men and women with respect to socioeconomic status, self-reported health, and hea...

    Authors: Neha Sikka, Allison DeLong, Jemima Kamano, Sylvester Kimaiyo, Vitalis Orango, Josephine Andesia, Valentin Fuster, Joseph Hogan and Rajesh Vedanthan

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:948

    Content type: Research article

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  33. The rate at which informal urban settlements (slums) are developing in Low and Middle Income. Countries (LMICs) like Uganda is high. With this, comes the growing intersection between urbanization and the repro...

    Authors: Doreen Tuhebwe, Susan Babirye, Steven Ssendagire and Freddie Ssengooba

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:933

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Sarcopenia is an important age-related disease which can lead to an increased risk of mortality, falls, fractures, and poor quality of life. So, timely detection can be effective in reducing the burden of dise...

    Authors: Ali Darvishi, Mohsen Rezaei Hemami, Gita Shafiee, Rajabali Daroudi, Mahsa Mohseni, Farkhondeh Hosseini Shekarabi and Ramin Heshmat

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:926

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection rates have been gradually increasing in Istanbul, Turkey. Many people living with HIV (PLWH) here encounter difficulties, for example, in adapting to the chronic di...

    Authors: Gamze Senyurek, Mustafa Volkan Kavas and Yesim Isil Ulman

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:904

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Assessing inequities in health services utilization contributes to build effective strategies for health equity promotion. This study aimed to evaluate the socioeconomic inequalities and inequities in health s...

    Authors: Yan Liu, Nan Liu, Mengjiao Cheng, Xin Peng, Junxuan Huang, Jinxiang Ma and Peixi Wang

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:903

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The challenges faced by healthcare personnel in relation to dengue prevention and control are perennial but noticeably unexplored. It is often difficult to translate policies and decision making by the elite i...

    Authors: Rosliza Abdul Manaf, Aidalina Mahmud, Anthony NTR and Siti Rohana Saad

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:876

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) challenges the Chinese health system reform. Little is known for the differences in catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) between urban and rural hous...

    Authors: Xian-zhi Fu, Qi-wei Sun, Chang-qing Sun, Fei Xu and Jun-jian He

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:874

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Knowledge of health care utilization is important in low-and middle-income countries where inequalities in the burden of diseases and access to primary health care exist. Limited evidence exists on health seek...

    Authors: Elvis O. A. Wambiya, Peter O. Otieno, Martin Kavao Mutua, Hermann Pythagore Pierre Donfouet and Shukri F. Mohamed

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:850

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Mass drug administration (MDA) has received growing interest to accelerate the elimination of multi-drug resistant malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Targeted MDA, sometimes referred to as focal MDA, is ...

    Authors: Shwe Sin Kyaw, Gilles Delmas, Tom L. Drake, Olivier Celhay, Wirichada Pan-ngum, Sasithon Pukrittayakamee, Yoel Lubell, Ricardo J. Aguas, Richard James Maude, Lisa J. White and Francois Nosten

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:826

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Crack-cocaine dependence is a serious public health issue, related to several psychiatric and psychosocial problems. Crack-cocaine users are usually embedded in a context of great social vulnerability, often a...

    Authors: Luciane Ogata Perrenoud, Koki Fernando Oikawa, Anna Virginia Williams, Ronaldo Laranjeira, Benedikt Fischer, John Strang and Marcelo Ribeiro

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:781

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Irrational use of antibiotics is proving to be a major concern to the health systems globally. This results in antibiotics resistance and increases health care costs. In Iran, despite many years of research, a...

    Authors: Zahra Sharif, Farzad Peiravian, Jamshid Salamzadeh, Nastaran Keshavarz Mohammadi and Ammar Jalalimanesh

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:778

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Children in resource-limited countries are more likely to die from treatable conditions than those in higher resource settings due to a lack of the right essential medicine at the right time. Globally millions...

    Authors: Tefera Tadesse, Habtamu Abuye and Gizachew Tilahun

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:714

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) is effective in curbing rates of HIV infection in children because its interventions reduce the rates of transmission during pregnancy, in labour, and ...

    Authors: Beatrice M’baya Kansinjiro and Alinane Linda Nyondo-Mipando

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:626

    Content type: Research article

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  45. As part of health system strengthening in South Africa (2012–2017) a new district health manager, taking a bottom-up approach, developed a suite of innovations to improve the processes of monthly district mana...

    Authors: Marsha Orgill, Bruno Marchal, Maylene Shung-King, Lwazikazi Sikuza and Lucy Gilson

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:587

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Globally, tobacco kills more than nine million people per year. Annually in Bangladesh, smoking accounts for 1.2 million illnesses and over one hundred fifty thousand deaths. Worldwide, about one out of five s...

    Authors: Tanvir Ahammed, Nasar U. Ahmed and Md Jamal Uddin

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:579

    Content type: Research article

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  47. The majority of deaths in the Philippines occur out-of-facility and require a medical certificate of cause of death by Municipal Health Officers (MHOs) for burial. MHOs lack a standardised certification proces...

    Authors: Rohina Joshi, R. H. Hazard, Pasyodun Koralage Buddhika Mahesh, L. Mikkelsen, F. Avelino, Carmina Sarmiento, A. Segarra, T. Timbang, F. Sinson, Patrick Diango, I. Riley, H. Chowdhury, Irma L. Asuncion, G. Khanom and Alan D. Lopez

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:563

    Content type: Research article

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  48. This study aimed to assess the trend in income-related inequalities in oral health services utilization by the Brazilian population from 1998 to 2013. This period represents a timeline that includes different ...

    Authors: Maria Helena Rodrigues Galvão and Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli

    Citation: BMC Public Health 2021 21:541

    Content type: Research article

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