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Table 1 Definition of health demands, health services structures and health outcomes indicators included in the clustering methods

From: Introducing an efficient sampling method for national surveys with limited sample sizes: application to a national study to determine quality and cost of healthcare

Factor Variable name Variable definition Geographical unit Data Source Year
Demand/Disease patterns Inpatient Annual average number of inpatient District Utilization 2014
Outpatients Annual average number of outpatient District Utilization 2014
Hospitalization rate Hospitalization rate per 1000 population Province Hospital Data 2011
Patient exchange rate Ratio of sending referrals to receiving referrals (Patient exchange rate) Province Hospital Data 2011
SBP Mean SBP among hypertensive patients District STEPs 2016
Glucose Mean of glucose among patients with DM District STEPs 2016
Cholesterol Mean cholesterol among patients with hyperlipidemia District STEPs 2016
Structure Basic insurance coverage Basic insurance coverage (% of the population with basic insurance) District Utilization 2014
Complementary insurance coverage Complementary insurance coverage (% of the population with complementary insurance) District Utilization 2014
Bed density Number of beds per 1000 population Province Hospital Data 2011
Physician density Number of physicians per 1000 population Province Hospital Data 2011
Outcome Probability of dying from IHD Probability of dying from IHD* among adults (age ≥ 30) Province DRS 2015
Probability of dying from Stroke Probability of dying from Stroke among adults (age ≥ 30) Province DRS 2015
Probability of dying from COPD Probability of dying from COPD* among adults (age ≥ 30) Province DRS 2015
Probability of dying from Diabetes Probability of dying from Diabetes mellitus among adults (age ≥ 30) Province DRS 2015
Probability of dying from CKD Probability of dying from CKD* among adults (age ≥ 30) Province DRS 2015
Neonatal mortality rate Neonatal mortality per 1000 live births Province DRS 2015
Adverse effect mortality Mortality rate due to the adverse effect of medical treatment Province DRS 2015
All-cause mortality ratio Expected mortality rate to observed mortality rate Province DRS 2015
Mortality rate in hospital Mortality rate among 1000 hospitalized patients Province Hospital Data 2011
  1. SBP Systolic Blood Pressure, DM Diabetes Mellitus, IHD Ischemic Heart Disease, COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, CKD Chronic Kidney Disease
  2. District is defined as a geographical region with administrative boundaries and an independent network of healthcare provisioning. Province comprises a set of districts and has few managerial authorities in planning and organization of health services. Provincial level is the first level of country subdivisions. Input data consist of data from 31 provinces and 413 districts of Iran
  3. Utilization study measures the use of inpatient and outpatient health services by individuals using a representative sample of population
  4. STEPs is a national survey based on the WHO stepwise approach to study non-communicable disease risk factors
  5. DRS abbreviates Death Registration System
  6. Hospital Data is a research project that studies 0.5% of all inpatient cases in hospitals owned by Ministry of Health and Medical Education in 2011 in Iran
  7. The adverse effect of medical treatment refers to unintended consequences of any types of medical interventions including prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation