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Table 4 Differences in students with or without a perceived impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on stress, depression, and anxiety (2020)

From: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on stress, mental health and coping behavior in German University students – a longitudinal study before and after the onset of the pandemic

Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on… Group n Mean SD p
study
 Stress Impacta 1537 28.7 6.9 0.000
No impactb 268 25.9 7.1
 Depression Impact 1329 5.0 4.9 0.144
No impact 181 4.4 5.1
 Anxiety Impact 1328 4.5 4.3 0.168
No impact 181 4.0 4.1
economic existence
 Stress Impact 445 30.8 6.6 0.000
No impact 1360 27.5 6.9
 Depression Impact 384 6.3 5.5 0.000
No impact 1128 4.5 4.6
 Anxiety Impact 383 5.2 4.8 0.000
No impact 1128 4.1 4.1
intangible existence
 Stress Impact 1231 29.9 6.6 0.000
No impact 576 24.9 6.5
 Depression Impact 1042 5.7 5.0 0.000
No impact 470 3.2 4.1
 Anxiety Impact 1041 4.9 4.5 0.000
No impact 470 3.4 3.7
  1. aImpact response options: strongly agree, agree, or undecided
  2. bNo impact response options: disagree or highly disagree