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Table 3 categories, subcategories, and codes extracted from data analysis

From: Explaining the reasons for not maintaining the health guidelines to prevent COVID-19 in high-risk jobs: a qualitative study in Iran

Categories Subcategories Codes
Individual factors personality traits Frustration, carelessness, impatience, laziness, risk-taking
lack of self-efficacy I can’t wash my hands after touching anything, I can’t wear gloves while driving, I can’t wear a mask because I feel short of breath, it’s hard for me to stay at home, I can’t work with my phone or do other things easily when I have gloves.
little knowledge of the disease and how to observe health issues related to it The use of one mask during the day, repeated use of a mask and disposable gloves, incorrect use of the mask, insufficient knowledge about how to wash hands properly, and lack of sufficient knowledge of symptoms, transmission ways and ways to prevent COVID-19
misconceptions about health Most old men take COVID-19 seriously, young people do not consider it as fatal, and people who had a previous illness die more. I am not sick. I am healthy. So nothing happens to me. I’ve heard that COVID-19 is like the common cold, not believing in quarantine
Structural factors difficulty of access to health supplies The high cost of hygienic products, lack of hygienic products, poor distribution of hygienic products in the city, crowded queue for distribution of hygienic products, poor quality of hygienic products
lack of supportive environment Not providing health facilities by the employer, lack of necessary hygienic products in the workplace, crowded work environment, non-observance of health norms by the customer or client, non-observance of health norms by colleagues
weak laws and supervision The lack of compulsion and pressure to observe health norms, the lack of rules to punish offenders, the lack of strict enforcement by officials, and the lack of adequate oversight for observing health norms
poor performance of officials and national media Not dealing with COVID-19 seriously, broadcasting contradictory messages, broadcasting different statistics, joking around about COVID-19 effects and consequences, not showing its serious consequences, and broadcasting TV shows (showing many people together)
Economic factors economic costs of living Reduction of income, being in debt, being a tenant, not having a job other than high-risk work, spending money on home and family
lack of government economic support Inadequacy of government assistance, fear of being fined by banks
Sociocultural factors learning Learning from officials as a model in media, Learning from neighbors as models, Learning from colleagues as models
cultural beliefs Fatalism, being labeled as fastidious and foppish by colleagues in case of observing health guidelines, being labeled as a coward by associates in case of observing health guidelines
social customs and rituals New Year (Norouz) parties, close relationship with each other, to have courtesies with colleagues