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Table 4 Impact of parental education on HPV vaccine uptake according to country background

From: Time trends in HPV vaccination according to country background: a nationwide register-based study among girls in Norway

  Higher education
n (%)
HPV vaccine uptakea Multivariable modelb
Lower education
n (%)
Higher education
n (%)
RD (95% CI)b P-value
Country backgroundc
 Norway 73,023 (46.0) 70,561 (82.3) 60,624 (83.0) − 0.6 (−1.0 to − 0.2) 0.005
 Europe, America, and Oceania 2576 (39.3) 3199 (80.4) 1898 (73.7) −7.8 (− 9.9 to − 5.6) <  0.001
 Middle East and Africa 1121 (17.2) 4328 (80.4) 881 (78.6) −2.7 (−5.3 to − 0.02) 0.048
 Asia 1091 (19.5) 4015 (89.2) 897 (82.2) −8.1 (−10.5 to −5.6) <  0.001
  1. HPV Human papillomavirus, RD Risk difference, CI Confidence interval
  2. a Receipt of at least one dose of HPV vaccine
  3. b Risk differences are estimated with linear binomial regression. The model included country background, year of birth, parental education level, household income, number of siblings, maternal age at time of daughter’s birth, region of residence, and interaction terms between country background and parental education level. RDs correspond to the difference in HPV vaccine uptake between girls with higher parental education and girls with lower parental education
  4. c List of countries in each category is provided in the Supplementary table