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Table 2 Medical ecology in terms of type of care (sources of health advice, hospital or post-hospital care) by survey year 2018 and 2020

From: The use of health care during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: repeated cross-sectional survey of the adult Swiss general population

  Survey 2020 (N = 1022) Survey 2018 (N = 958)  
Estimate per 1000 Lower CI Upper CI Estimate per 1000 Lower CI Upper CI Statistica p-valuea
Health problems
 had 1 or more health problems 513 482 543 555 514 595 −1.62 0.106
 one 326 304 347 371 340 400 −0.92 0.356
 more than one 184 163 205 182 153 213 0.92 0.356
 took medication 367 347 386 391 358 421 0.47 0.637
 asked for medical advice 214 192 235 241 210 274 −0.48 0.629
Sources of health advice
 general practitioner b 180 159 201 164 136 195 1.26 0.208
 specialist physician 41 31 53 82 62 103 −3.02 0.003
 pharmacy 38 28 50 18 7 36 2.12 0.035
 internet 26 18 36 3 1 9 3.74 < 0.001
 accident and emergency unit 25 17 36 13 6 24 2.13 0.034
 outpatient clinic 17 10 26 22 12 35 −0.32 0.750
 psychotherapist or psychologist 15 9 23      
 family/friends 14 8 22 6 2 14 1.68 0.094
 physiotherapy 12 6 19 3 1 7 2.59 0.010
 CAM practitioner 12 6 19 7 2 15 1.24 0.216
 telephone medical advice center 11 6 18 8 2 19 0.73 0.464
 drugstore 6 2 12 2 0 7 1.37 0.171
 federal/cantonal COVID-19 hotline 6 2 12      
 dentist 5 2 11 6 2 16 −0.18 0.859
 other 4 1 9 5 1 14 −0.05 0.957
 no answer 1 0 5 0 0 2 0.65 0.514
Hospital or post-hospital care
 had in-patient hospital care 19 12 29 15 9 24 0.89 0.373
Levels of care
 in normal care unit 17 13 19 13 10 14 0.69 0.497
 in intensive care unit 2 0 6 3 1 5 −0.69 0.497
 had a surgical procedure 8 4 12 6 4 9 0.05 0.958
 needed mechanic ventilation 0 0 0      
Levels of hospital
 were in university hospital 8 4 12 5 3 8 0.41 0.686
 were in cantonal hospital 5 2 10 2 1 4 1.21 0.233
 were in private hospital 4 1 8 2 0 4 0.97 0.338
 were in regional hospital 2 0 6 7 4 10 −2.11 0.041
Post-hospital care
 were in rehabilitation clinic 5 2 9 4 2 7 0.09 0.925
 had ambulatory nursing care 2 0 6 3 1 6 −0.89 0.379
  1. CAM = complementary and alternative medicine
  2. afrom univariable logistic regression with survey year (2020 vs 2018) as predictor
  3. b Including contacts with the GP due to COVID-19 questions