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Table 1 Codebook used for qualitative analysis

From: Qualitative analysis of visual risk communication on twitter during the Covid-19 pandemic

Top-level Detail Example
(Identified inductively)
Health or governmental organisation The WHO, or Victoria Government
Private sector Pharma Company
Media CNN, ABC News
Individual person Citizen, politician, academic, or artist
Other University
Graphic Type (Saunders, 1994) Symbols A pictographic or logo
Graphs Used to show quantitative relationships
Diagrams Parts, a process, a general scheme, and/or the flow of results
Illustrations or rendered pictures Drawn pictures, realistic or abstract, including background illustrations
Photographs Still (i.e. photograph) or moving (such as gif or video)
Models Such as 3d renderings or computer models
Composite graphics Multiple images
Other Visual Attributes Colour Anything with more than white and black
Animated Video, Gif or animation
Link Link / URL A URL is in the tweet text or in the visual
Content Focus
(Identified inductively)
Raises criticism Government or political criticism, or criticism of someone’s behaviour
Provides entertainment Shows something funny, or emotive
Thankful / gratitude Thanks doctors for saving patients
Covid-19 Focus
(Identified inductively)
Detection Relates measures to detection of cases or how it impacts the body
Treatment Mentions people recovering
Impact Discusses impacts to behaviour, the economy, or society
Other How it spreads
Type of Action (WHO guidelines) Social distance Keeping distance with people and avoiding crowded places
Wear a mask Protecting yourself and other by wearing a mask
Stay home Working, studying or remaining at home if feeling unwell / quarantine
Wash hands Regularly and thoroughly washing hands with soap and water
Cover mouth & nose when sneezing Or using a tissue and disposing it immediately
Avoid touching mouth and eyes Particularly with unwashed hands
Get medical help w. symptoms (but call - don’t go in)
Other Cooking meat or eggs / basic hygiene / know the symptoms / get tested
Framing (Tversky & Kahneman, 1992) Health gain We need to protect ourselves and others to protect / save society
Health loss We need to follow measures to avoid sickness, suffering and death
Non-applicable We just need to do this