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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics and adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the two outcomes: late treatment initiation and treatment initiation with advanced disease

From: Late initiation of antiretroviral therapy: inequalities by educational level despite universal access to care and treatment

   Late treatment initiation Treatment initiation with advanced disease
  Total No Yes Odds Ratio (95%CI) No Yes Odds Ratio (95%CI)
Total 3226 1150 (35.6) 2076 (64.4)   1803 (55.9) 1423 (44.1)  
Exposure of interest
Educational level
 Tertiary 525 (16.4) 242 (46.1) 283 (53.9) Ref. 366 (69.7) 159 (30.3) Ref.
 Secondary 1251 (39.2) 480 (38.4) 771 (61.6) 1.35 (1.09–1.67) 751 (60) 500 (40) 1.51 (1.21–1.88)
 Basic 540 (16.9) 163 (30.2) 377 (69.8) 1.61 (1.23–2.1) 268 (49.6) 272 (50.4) 2.07 (1.59–2.71)
 Incomplete basic 876 (27.4) 249 (28.4) 627 (71.6) 1.89 (1.47–2.43) 399 (45.5) 477 (54.5) 2.53 (1.97–3.26)
Covariates
Age at treatment initiation
 Median (IQR) 36.6 (30.8,44.5) 35.5 (29.9,44) 37.2 (31.3,44.7) 35.5 (30.1,43.5) 38 (31.7,45.2)
Gender/Sexual orientationa
 Cis women 938 (29.1) 349 (37.2) 589 (62.8) Ref. 559 (59.6) 379 (40.4) Ref.
 Cis MSM 1205 (37.4) 479 (39.8) 726 (60.2) 1.23 (1.01–1.49) 740 (61.4) 465 (38.6) 1.28 (1.06–1.55)
 Cis heterosexual men 772 (23.9) 196 (25.4) 576 (74.6) 1.76 (1.42–2.18) 35 (43.4) 437 (56.6) 1.96 (1.61–2.39)
 Cis men (unknown exposure) 311 (9.6) 126 (40.5) 185 (59.5) 1.18 (0.9–1.56) 169 (54.3) 142 (45.7) 1.62 (1.24–2.12)
Skin color/race
 White 1378 (43.3) 517 (37.5) 861 (62.5) Ref. 816 (59.2) 562 (40.8) Ref.
 Black 697 (21.9) 217 (31.1) 480 (68.9) 1.34 (1.09–1.65) 347 (49.8) 350 (50.2) 1.34 (1.1–1.63)
 Mixed (pardo) 1109 (34.8) 404 (36.4) (63.6) 1.08 (0.91–1.28) 622 (56.1) 487 (43.9) 1.06 (0.9–1.26)
State of origin
 Rio de Janeiro 2511 (79.6) 914 (36.4) 1597 (63.6) Ref. 1418 (56.5) 1093 (43.5) Ref.
 Other 645 (20.4) 212 (32.9) 433 (67.1) 1.07 (0.88–1.3) 347 (53.8) 298 (46.2) 1.02 (0.85–1.22)
Year of treatment initiation
 Median (IQR) 2011 (2008,2014) 2013 (2010,2015) 2011 (2008,2013) 0.86 (0.83–0.88) 2012 (2009,2014) 2011 (2008,2014) 0.94 (0.91–0.97)
  1. MSM men who have sex with men, RJ Rio de Janeiro State, ART antiretroviral treatment, CI confidence interval
  2. a The gender/sexual orientation variable combines information of a person’s gender identity and sexual orientation as it pertains to the probable mode of HIV acquisition thus categorizing the study population into cis-women, cis-men who have sex with men, heterosexual cis-men and other cis-men for whom their mode of HIV acquisition is unknown
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