Skip to main content

Table 4 QoL influencing factors among male older adults

From: Gender differences in quality of life among community-dwelling older adults in low- and middle-income countries: results from the Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)

 TotalChinaIndiaRussiaSouth AfricaGhana
β (SE)β (SE)β (SE)β (SE)β (SE)β (SE)
Country (Ref: China)
 India−0.44 (0.45)     
 Russia−0.93 (0.33)     
 South Africa−4.46 (0.41)     
 Ghana−5.25 (0.40)     
Age group (Ref: 50–59)
 60–690.26 (0.20)0.57 (0.32)−0.87 (0.39)*1.79 (0.70)*1.07 (0.58)−0.19 (0.51)
 70–791.08 (0.24)1.86 (0.38)−1.11 (0.50)*3.53 (0.87)3.34 (0.76)†−0.26 (0.62)
 80 and above2.33 (0.40)4.36 (0.66)0.05 (0.86)8.66 (1.41)2.06 (1.13)−1.00 (0.84)
Education (Ref: Less than primary)
 Primary only−0.19 (0.25)0.04 (0.36)−0.61 (0.48)1.52 (2.82)−0.96 (0.79)−0.08 (0.68)
 Secondary only−0.06 (0.27)−0.03 (0.39)− 0.95 (0.53)1.50 (2.72)1.00 (0.93)1.58 (0.94)
 High school only−0.14 (0.28)−0.40 (0.46)− 0.04 (0.59)2.72 (2.69)0.96 (1.18)−1.01 (0.58)
 College and above0.51 (0.37)0.27 (0.61)0.97 (0.75)2.03 (2.75)1.57 (1.23)0.62 (1.05)
Health insurance0.28 (0.26)0.17 (0.44)−0.95 (0.73)0.97 (3.95)0.38 (0.66)0.72 (0.45)
Income4.88 (0.23)4.74 (0.36)3.76 (0.49)3.19 (0.81)5.82 (0.72)6.35 (0.64)
Living environment0.73 (0.12)1.10 (0.21)0.81 (0.20)1.51 (0.63)*1.43 (0.36)−0.62 (0.30)*
Cognitive function0.97 (0.11)0.78 (0.16)1.18 (0.27)0.82 (0.34)*1.07 (0.31)1.27 (0.29)
Physical function−0.36 (0.01)− 0.41 (0.02)− 0.32 (0.01)−0.42 (0.03)− 0.33 (0.02)−0.37 (0.02)
Arthritis−2.46 (0.22)−3.41 (0.34)−1.84 (0.47)−2.23 (0.68)− 1.09 (0.69)− 1.92 (0.69)
Hypertension0.02 (0.17)0.09 (0.27)0.30 (0.37)−1.68 (0.57)0.45 (0.54)0.42 (0.42)
Diabetes−2.08 (0.35)−2.91 (0.56)−1.19 (0.64)− 2.66 (1.23)*− 1.45 (0.92)−2.42 (1.16)*
Married0.46 (0.27)1.19 (0.52)*−1.14 (0.53)*0.40 (1.12)0.53 (0.63)1.16 (0.62)
Family support−0.02 (0.20)0.28 (0.30)−0.24 (0.39)−1.33 (0.78)1.07 (0.79)0.05 (0.47)
Community support−0.76 (0.46)−2.47 (1.01)*−1.03 (0.60)3.21 (2.22)3.87 (2.10)−0.54 (1.32)
Social cohesion index0.22 (0.02)†0.28 (0.04)0.32 (0.04)†0.37 (0.08)†0.04 (0.05)0.15 (0.03)
Living arrangements0.61 (0.35)1.27 (0.58)*−2.55 (2.09)0.21 (1.25)1.21 (0.78)1.95 (0.75)
  1. Note. * < 0.05;  < 0.01