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Table 4 Typical and specific symptoms and signs of heart failure

From: The epidemiology of heart failure in the general Australian community - study of heart failure in the Australian primary carE setting (SHAPE): methods

Symptoms of heart failureSigns of heart failure
Dyspnoea (usually with exertion)Elevated jugular venous pressure
OrthopnoeaHepatojugular reflux
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoeaThird heart sound
 Laterally displaced apex beat
  1. Source: Atherton J, Sindone A, De Pasquale C, et al. National Heart Foundation of Australia and Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand Guidelines for the prevention, detection and management of heart failure in Australia 2018