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Table 4 Rating the quality of evidence using the GRADE methodology

From: The quadrivalent HPV vaccine is protective against genital warts: a meta-analysis

Num-ber of studiesStudy designInitial level of evi-denceEvidence componentsDowngrade/upgrade of evidenceNotesFinal level of evidence
8RCThighRisk of biasO
MODERATE
Heterogeneity
Indirectnessdowngrade by 1groups with different background risks
Imprecision
Publication bias
8time-trend analysislowRisk of biasOO
LOW
Heterogeneitydowngrade by 1low p value
Indirectness
Imprecisionupgrade by 1high number of participants, narrow CI
Publication bias