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Table 3 Association between geographical characteristics and area-based loneliness (multilevel logistic regression)

From: Lonely places or lonely people? Investigating the relationship between loneliness and place of residence

 Model AModel BModel C
OR (95%CI), p-valueOR (95%CI), p-valueOR (95%CI), p-value
Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) (ref = 1st quintile-least deprived)2nd quintile1.34 (1.08–1.67), 0.0081.14 (0.88–1.47), 0.3211.11 (0.86–1.44), 0.406
3rd quintile1.31 (1.03–1.65), 0.0251.27 (0.97–1.66), 0.0871.27 (0.97–1.67), 0.081
4th quintile1.61 (1.26–2.06), < 0.0011.27 (0.95–1.1770), 0.1061.26 (0.94–1.69), 0.123
5th quintile-most deprived1.95 (1.49–2.57), < 0.0011.57 (1.12–2.20), 0.0081.53 (1.09–2.14), 0.015
p-value for trend< 0.0010.0060.009
Urban/rural character (ref = Urban)Town and fringe0.79 (0.62–1.01), 0.0650.78 (0.59–1.04), 0.0960.77 (0.57–1.03), 0.085
Village0.98 (0.77–1.25), 0.8801.20 (0.90–1.60), 0.1951.26 (0.95–1.67), 0.105
Hamlet and isolated dwellings0.92 (0.63–1.35), 0.6730.96 (0.61–1.50), 0.8741.00 (0.63–1.60), 0.984
p-value for trend0.4270.7900.506
Geographical regions (ref = London)North East0.74 (0.48–1.12), 0.1570.76 (0.44–1.25), 0.2910.76 (0.45–1.26), 0.291
North West0.73 (0.51–1.06), 0.0940.66 (0.42–1.02), 0.0620.66 (0.42–1.02), 0.062
Yorkshire and The Humber0.98 (0.69–1.40), 0.9080.88 (0.58–1.36), 0.5760.89 (0.60–1.36), 0.576
East Midlands0.78 (0.54–1.13), 0.1960.70 (0.45–1.09), 0.1160.70 (0.45–1.09), 0.116
West Midlands0.82 (0.54–1.13), 0.2870.71 (0.45–1.10), 0.1270.71 (0.52–1.13), 0.190
East of England1.02 (0.73–1.42), 0.8810.97 (0.64–1.46), 0.8781.09 (0.45–1.10), 0.127
South East0.96 (0.68–1.29), 0.7610.91 (0.61–1.33), 0.6190.97 (0.63–1.46), 0.879
South West0.95 (0.67–1.34), 0.7610.83 (0.54–1.27), 0.3980.91 (0.61–1.33), 0.861
  1. Model A = geographical characteristics+age + gender
  2. Model B = Model A+ social network + individual-based loneliness from baseline wave
  3. Model C = Model B + health characteristics