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Table 1 Descriptive table of analytical sample

From: Lonely places or lonely people? Investigating the relationship between loneliness and place of residence

N = 4663 N (%)/mean (S.D)Individually-based loneliness (%)Area-based loneliness (%)
GenderMales43.8%13.719.3
Females56.2%20.628.8
AgeWave 365.5 (7.9)19.324.8
Wave 772.8 (7.1)17.624.6
SOCIAL NETWORK
Marital status(Re) married/partnership2903 (62.3)10.919.5
Always single207 (4.4)23.724.7
Divorced/separated510 (10.9)28.533.7
Widowed/partner died1043 (22.4)31.536.1
Missing (N)0  
Has close relationship with 2+ family member/friendYes3528 (87.5)15.423.2
No506 (12.5)33.835.1
Missing (N)629  
Active civic participationYes2825 (74.2)15.421.8
No983 (25,8)22.630.0
Missing855  
Part of job marketOut of job market3928 (84.4)18.125.0
Employed/semi-employed530 (11.4)13.220.2
Looking after home/family194 (4.2)19.529.3
Missing11  
HEALTH STATUS
Self-rated health (wave 4)Excellent /very good/good3125 (70.3)13.321.3
Fair/poor1318 (29.7)29.133.5
Missing220  
Depressive symptomsNo3524 (80.4)10.920.4
3+ out of 8860 (19.6)47.742.7
Missing279  
Activities of daily living (ADL/IADL)No difficulties3433 (73.6)14.422.4
Difficulty with 1+1228 (26.4)28.632.0
Missing2  
Long-standing illnessNo1848(39.7)13.420.4
Yes, not limiting947 (20.3)14.824.0
Yes, limiting1866 (40.0)23.829.6
Missing2  
Reported loneliness
(UCLA scale)
No3208 (82.5)n/a18.1
Yes (6+ out of 9)683 (17.6) 54.0
Missing772  
Feel lonely living in this areaNo2993 (75.4)10.6n/a
Yes (4+ out of 7)957 (24.6)38.6 
Missing773  
GEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS (wave 6)
Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD)1st quintile (least deprived)1163 (26.0)13.319.4
2nd1181 (26.4)17.723.8
3rd899 (20.1)17.424.3
4th735 (16.4)19.528.9
5th500 (11.2)23.231.6
Missing185  
Urban/rural distributionUrban3271 (72.6)17.725.3
Town/fringe565 (12.5)17.721.0
Village497 (11.0)15.123.1
Hamlets /isolated dwellings174 (3.9)15.823.3
Missing156  
Geographical regionsLondon385 (8.6)13.025.9
North East276 (6.1)14.620.1
North West503 (11.2)18.321.8
Yorkshire and The Humber487 (10.8)19.526.4
East Midlands478 (10.6)18.822.0
West Midlands494 (11.0)19.623.4
East of England580 (12.9)15.626.5
South East761 (16.9)15.525.5
South West532 (11.8)20.125.4
Missing167