Forest plots showing the risk of multimorbidity for quintiles of area deprivation index (ADI) by sex. Top panel: Odds ratio of multimorbidity (≥2 chronic conditions) by sex; Bottom panel: Odds ratio of severe multimorbidity (≥5 chronic conditions) by sex. CI, confidence interval. Odds ratios are adjusted for age, race, ethnicity, and individual level of education. Quintile 1 (0–19%) served as the reference.