Skip to main content

Table 5 Odds ratios and confidence intervals for health improvements experienced in subsamples by behavior change group compared to controls (no changes in diet or physical activity) controlled for sex and age

From: Combined diet and physical activity is better than diet or physical activity alone at improving health outcomes for patients in New Zealand’s primary care intervention

Subsamples analysed with associated health improvements Increased PA
versus no changes
Changed diet
versus no changes
Increased PA +
changed diet
versus no changes
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Lower Upper Lower Upper   Lower Upper
Metabolic subsample (n = 1192)
 Lost weight 5.22*** 2.10 12.94 7.22*** 2.96 17.59 17.47*** 7.43 41.05
 Lower blood pressure 1.71 0.69 4.26 2.44* 1.02 5.87 3.19** 1.41 7.18
 Lower cholesterol 1.35 0.41 4.41 3.50* 1.18 10.38 3.50* 1.24 9.87
 Improved blood sugar 1.99 0.71 5.61 2.02 0.73 5.60 3.79** 1.48 9.67
 Less medications 1.45 0.29 7.40 3.28 0.73 14.76 4.17* 1.00 17.50
 Fewer illnesses 2.20 0.46 10.48 2.71 0.60 12.31 4.91* 1.18 20.51
Physiological subsample (n = 627)
 Less back pain 2.25* 1.04 4.89 1.25 0.56 2.81 2.36* 1.16 4.80
 Less joint pain/discomfort 2.63* 1.23 5.62 1.05 0.46 2.38 3.16*** 1.57 6.36
 Increased mobility 6.23*** 2.30 16.84 2.76 0.98 7.77 6.61*** 2.55 17.08
Psychological subsample (n = 447)
 Less stressed 2.35 0.92 6.00 1.84 0.72 4.71 3.24** 1.38 7.60
 Feel less depressed/anxious 1.16 0.46 2.93 0.84 0.33 2.14 1.33 0.58 3.06
Sleep subsample (n = 253)
 Sleeping better 5.53* 1.31 23.28 3.70 0.89 15.42 3.50 0.94 13.03
Asthma/breathing subsample (n = 243)
 Breathing easier 9.34** 1.76 49.60 4.59 0.87 24.37 14.64*** 2.94 72.78
Fall prevention subsample (n = 104)
 Better balance/fewer falls 1.52 0.36 6.48 1.59 0.33 7.66 1.27 0.34 4.71
Smoking subsample (n = 67)
 Smoking less 4.23 0.26 68.81 4.18 0.26 68.29 3.09 0.22 43.84
  1. *p ≤ .05, **p ≤ .01, ***p < .001, PA physical activity