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Table 4 Vitamin D related behaviors stratified by case and control groups

From: Knowledge and attitudes about vitamin D, and behaviors related to vitamin D in adults with and without coronary heart disease in Saudi Arabia

Variables Cases (n = 130) Controls (n = 195) P-value*
N % N %
Sun exposure and using of sun protection
 Do you work mainly:
  Indoor 106 81.5 191 97.9 .001
  Outdoor 24 18.5 4 2.1
 How much time do you often spend outdoors per day on weekdays?
  Not at all 23 17.7 20 10.3 .001
  ˂30 min 58 44.6 126 64.6
  30–60 min 27 20.8 45 23.1
   > 60 min 22 16.9 4 2.1
 How much time do you often spend outdoors per days on weekends?
  Not at all 46 35.4 95 48.7 .001
  ˂30 min 48 36.9 46 23.6
  30–60 min 19 14.6 47 24.1
   > 60 min 17 13.1 7 3.6
 Which parts of your body get exposed to the sun?
  Face 0 0 0 0 .001
  Hand 12 9.2 29 14.9
  Face & hand 95 73.1 156 80
  Both arms 23 17.7 10 5.1
  Both legs 0 0 0 0
  Completely covered 0 0 0 0  
 How often do you wear sunscreen while outdoors in the sun?
  Never 129 99.2 156 80 .001
  1–4 times/week 0 0 23 11.8
   > 5 times/week 1 0.8 16 8.2
The use of supplementation
 Do you take vitamin D supplements
  Yes 18 13.8 21 10.8 .403
  No 122 86.2 174 89.2
 Do you take calcium supplements?
  Yes 4 3.1 9 4.6 .488
  No 126 96.9 186 95.4
 Do you take multivitamin supplements?
  Yes 1 0.8 13 6.7 .010
  No 129 99.2 182 93.3
 Do you take calcium supplements with vitamin D?
  Yes 1 0.8 5 2.6 .239
  No 129 99.2 190 97.4
The intake of food rich in vitamin D
 How often do you drink milk?
  Never 33 25.4 82 42.1 .002
  1–2 times/week 27 20.8 43 22.1
  3–6 times/week 27 20.8 37 19
   ≥ once/day 43 33.1 33 16.9
 How often do you eat butter?
  Never 113 86.9 132 67.7 .001
  1–2 times/week 12 9.2 40 20.5
  3–6 times/week 4 3.1 20 10.3
   ≥ once/day 1 0.8 3 1.5
 How often do you eat eggs?
  Never 21 16.2 32 16.4 .998
  1–2 times/week 95 73.1 142 72.8
  3–6 times/week 14 10.8 21 10.8
   ≥ once/day 0 0 0 0
 How often do you eat oily fish (salmon, tuna, sardine)?
  Never 66 50.8 72 36.9 .034
  1–2 times/week 44 33.8 73 37.4
  3–6 times/week 14 10.8 41 21
   ≥ once/day 6 4.6 9 4.6
 How often do you eat liver?
  Never 106 81.5 125 64.1 .001
  1–2 times/week 15 11.5 52 26.7
  3–6 times/week 7 5.4 18 9.2
   ≥ once/day 2 1.5 0 0
  1. *P-value based on X2 -test