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Table 2 Sample characteristics and odds ratios for the relationship between lifestyle behaviours and optimal wellbeing (n = 9514)

From: Associations between lifestyle behaviours and optimal wellbeing in a diverse sample of New Zealand adults

  Total Optimal wellbeing Crude Partially3 adjusted Fully4 adjusted
  n (%) n (%, 95 % CI) OR1 (95 % CI2) OR1 (95 % CI2) OR1 (95 % CI2)
Gender
 Male 4478 (47) 1101 (25, 23–26) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Female 5013 (53) 1199 (24, 23–25) 0.96 (0.88–1.06) 1.10 (0.98–1.23) 1.02 (0.88–1.18)
Age, years
  < 20 221 (3) 41 (19, 13–24) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 20–29 1856 (23) 359 (19, 18–21) 1.05 (0.75–1.56) 0.93 (0.60–1.59) 0.90 (0.55–1.50)
 30–39 1472 (18) 305 (21, 19–23) 1.15 (0.82–1.75) 0.90 (0.57–1.53) 0.75 (0.46–1.27)
 40–49 1413 (17) 303 (21, 19–24) 1.20 (0.85–1.82) 0.94 (0.59–1.62) 0.81 (0.50–1.42)
 50–59 1326 (16) 336 (25, 23–28) 1.49 (1.06–2.21)* 1.23 (0.78–2.10) 0.98 (0.60–1.69)
 60–69 1337 (16) 448 (34, 31–36) 2.21 (1.59–3.40)** 2.18 (1.40–3.69)** 1.43 (0.88–2.43)
 70–79 495 (6) 198 (40, 36–44) 2.93 (2.03–4.39)** 3.36 (2.09–6.13)** 2.00 (1.16–3.51)*
  ≥ 80 54 (1) 17 (32, 19–44) 2.02 (0.94–3.92)* 1.91 (0.77–4.28) 1.19 (0.51–2.75)
Ethnicity
 European/Other 7093 (76) 1724 (24, 23–25) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Asian 1002 (11) 232 (23, 21–26) 0.94 (0.80–1.09) 1.26 (1.02–1.55)* 1.25 (0.97–1.59)
 Maori/Pacific 1229 (13) 313 (26, 23–28) 1.06 (0.92–1.23) 1.20 (0.99–1.41)* 1.52 (1.23–1.89)**
Household income
 Low (≤ $40,000) 2366 (33) 481 (20, 19–22) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Mid ($40,001–$90,000) 2510 (36) 582 (23, 22–25) 1.18 (1.04–1.36)* 1.46 (1.27–1.67)** 1.30 (1.10–1.56)**
 High (≥ $90,001) 2191 (31) 660 (30, 28–32) 1.69 (1.47–1.93)** 2.26 (1.93–2.61)** 1.84 (1.55–2.23)**
Restless sleep, how often past week
 None or almost none of the time 2182 (23) 754 (35, 33–37) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Sometimes 4397 (46) 1246 (28, 27–30) 0.75 (0.67–0.84)** 0.78 (0.68–0.89)** 0.83 (0.71–0.96)*
 Most times 1915 (20) 217 (11, 10–13) 0.24 (0.20–0.29)** 0.27 (0.22–0.33)** 0.31 (0.24–0.39)**
 All or almost all of the time 1009 (11) 84 (8, 7–10) 0.17 (0.13–0.22)** 0.20 (0.15–0.26)** 0.24 (0.17–0.32)**
Body mass index
 Normal weight 2660 (35) 645 (24, 23–26) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Underweight 148 (2) 28 (19, 13–25) 0.73 (0.46–1.08) 0.70 (0.39–1.14) 0.75 (0.37–1.30)
 Overweight 2521 (33) 730 (29, 27–31) 1.27 (1.12–1.44)** 1.18 (1.01–1.38)* 1.24 (1.05–1.46)*
 Obese 2375 (31) 491 (21, 19–22) 0.81 (0.71–0.93)** 0.75 (0.63–0.88)** 0.89 (0.74–1.07)
Alcohol, how often do you have a drink containing
 Up to 4 times/month 1707 (18) 450 (26, 24–28) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Never 2408 (26) 573 (24, 22–26) 0.87 (0.75–1.01) 0.83 (0.70–1.00)* 0.88 (0.71–1.08)
 Monthly or less 2858 (31) 595 (21, 19–22) 0.73 (0.64–0.85)** 0.72 (0.61–0.85)** 0.76 (0.62–0.92)**
 Up to 3 times/week 1273 (14) 342 (27, 24–29) 1.03 (0.86–1.22) 0.88 (0.71–1.06) 0.90 (0.72–1.11)
 ≥ 4 times/week 1088 (12) 300 (28, 25–30) 1.06 (0.89–1.27) 0.79 (0.65–0.98)* 0.87 (0.68–1.08)
Regular smoker
 Yes 1642 (17) 291 (18, 16–20) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 No 7779 (83) 1997 (26, 25–27) 1.60 (1.40–1.85)** 1.44 (1.23–1.72)** 1.18 (0.98–1.45)
Exercise, how many times past week
 Don’t exercise 3379 (38) 614 (18, 17–19) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 1–2 times/week 2552 (28) 612 (24, 22–26) 1.42 (1.24–1.62)** 1.46 (1.23–1.69)** 1.21 (1.02–1.43)*
 3–4 times/week 1874 (21) 535 (29, 27–31) 1.80 (1.58–1.62)** 1.81 (1.52–2.13)** 1.39 (1.13–1.69)**
 5–6 times/week 972 (11) 309 (32, 29–35) 2.10 (1.79–2.46)** 1.88 (1.56–2.29)** 1.37 (1.11–1.69)**
≥ 7 times/week 215 (2) 188 (37, 32–41) 2.59 (2.11–3.11)** 2.32 (1.78–3.10)** 1.61 (1.22–2.13)**
Sedentary levels, time spent sitting for the most part of each day past week
 All or almost all of the time 651 (7) 99 (15, 12–18) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 None or almost none of the time 192 (2) 53 (28, 21–34) 2.13 (1.42–3.23)** 2.28 (1.38–3.72)** 1.87 (1.01–3.29)**
 A little of the time 1263 (13) 363 (29, 26–31) 2.25 (1.77–2.96)** 1.91 (1.42–2.37)** 1.68 (1.20–2.49)**
 Some of the time 4177 (44) 1169 (28, 27–29) 2.17 (1.72–2.78)** 1.88 (1.46–2.60)** 1.59 (1.18–2.26)**
 Most of the time 3151 (33) 598 (19, 18–20) 1.31 (1.03–1.68)* 1.16 (0.91–1.62) 1.09 (0.79–1.57)
Vegetables, average servings per day over last week
 Don’t eat vegetables 107 (1) 11 (10, 5–16) 1.00 1.00 1.00
  < 1 serving/day 859 (9) 115 (13, 11–16) 1.35 (0.77–2.99) 1.51 (0.68–7.07) 1.43 (0.58–7.14)
 1 servings/day 2327 (25) 496 (21, 20–23) 2.36 (1.39–5.38)* 2.42 (1.13–11.89)* 1.75 (0.75–8.44)
 2 servings/day 2432 (26) 577 (24, 22–25) 2.71 (1.58–6.09)** 3.01 (1.44–14.30)* 2.06 (0.86–10.17)
 3 servings/day 2045 (22) 579 (28, 26–30) 3.45 (2.03–7.87)** 3.52 (1.62–16.79)** 2.21 (0.92–10.84)
  ≥ 4 servings/day 1563 (17) 502 (32, 30–34) 4.13 (2.42–9.27)** 4.22 (1.97–19.63)** 2.31 (0.97–11.54)
Fruit, average servings/day over last week
 Don’t eat fruit 323 (3) 42 (13, 9–17) 1.00 1.00 1.00
  < 1 serving/day 1931 (21) 301 (16, 14–17) 1.24 (0.89–1.825) 1.07 (0.72–1.67) 0.88 (0.55–1.46)
 1 servings/day 2826 (30) 661 (23, 22–25) 2.04 (1.50–2.89)** 1.68 (1.17–2.74)* 1.06 (0.66–1.78)
 2 servings/day 2489 (27) 696 (28, 26–30) 2.60 (1.89–3.79)** 2.06 (1.43–3.27)** 1.13 (0.71–1.88)
 3 servings/day 1134 (12) 356 (31, 29–34) 3.06 (2.21–4.54)** 2.38 (1.64–3.96)** 1.28 (0.78–2.19)
  ≥ 4 servings/day 642 (7) 226 (35, 32–39) 3.63 (2.60–5.49)** 2.59 (1.68–4.20)** 1.35 (0.80–2.35)
Breakfast, how many days over last week
 7 days/week 5255 (56) 1561 (30, 28–31) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Never 1060 (11) 153 (14, 12–17) 0.40 (0.33–0.47)** 0.50 (0.40–0.62)** 0.81 (0.62–1.08)
 1–2 days/week 1116 (12) 178 (16, 14–18) 0.45 (0.37–0.53)** 0.54 (0.43–0.68)** 0.75 (0.58–0.93)*
 3–4 days/week 943 (10) 196 (21, 18–23) 0.62 (0.52–0.73)** 0.80 (0.65–0.98)* 0.91 (0.71–1.17)
 5–6 days/week 1020 (11) 200 (20, 17–22) 0.58 (0.49–0.67)** 0.60 (0.48–0.73)** 0.67 (0.52–0.84)**
Sugary drinks, how often over last week
 Don’t drink sugary drinks 2545 (27) 784 (31, 29–33) 1.00 1.00 1.00
  < 1 time/week 1516 (16) 389 (26, 23–28) 0.78 (0.68–0.90)** 0.83 (0.69–0.99)* 0.86 (0.70–1.06)
 1–2 times/week 2340 (25) 534 (23, 21–25) 0.66 (0.58–0.75)** 0.77 (0.66–0.90)** 0.82 (0.67–1.00)
 3–4 times/week 1366 (15) 283 (21,19–23) 0.59 (0.51–0.68)** 0.72 (0.59–0.87)** 0.83 (0.66–1.03)
 5–6 times/week 684 (7) 123 (18, 15–21) 0.49 (0.40–0.60)** 0.60 (0.46–0.78)** 0.73 (0.53–0.95)*
  ≥ 7 times/week 932 (10) 175 (19, 16–21) 0.52 (0.43–0.63)** 0.67 (0.54–0.85)** 0.92 (0.71–1.18)
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; 1odds ratio; 2bootstrapped 95 % confidence interval; 3adjusted for gender, age, ethnicity, income; 4adjusted for all demographic and lifestyle behaviours concurrently