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Table 3 The association between underweight and overweight, and socio-demographic status of Ghanaian women aged 19–49 in a multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis

From: Double burden of malnutrition: increasing overweight and obesity and stall underweight trends among Ghanaian women

Indicator Rural Urban
Underweighta,b Over-weight/obesea,b Underweighta,b Over-weight/obesea,b
<18.5 kg/m2 >25.0kg/m2 <18.5 kg/m2 >25.0kg/m2
Age (in years)     
15–24 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
25–34 0.93 (0.68–1.27) 3.25 (2.464.29) 1.32 (0.72–2.41) 3.64 (2.764.78)
35–49 0.81 (0.63–1.05) 2.21 (1.742.82) 1.24 (0.78–1.97) 2.57 (2.033.25)
Education     
Higher education 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Secondary education 2.97 (0.20–44.93) 0.52 (0.23–1.02) 1.86 (0.34–10.31) 0.84 (0.58–1.22)
Primary education 2.12 (0.14–32.22) 0.44 (0.220.88) 3.07 (0.54–17.25) 0.84 (0.57–1.25)
No education 2.81 (0.19–42.52) 0.22 (0.110.44) 3.28 (0.58–18.47) 0.48 (0.320.72)
Parity     
1 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
2 or more 1.1 (0.91–1.34) 0.70 (0.580.84) 0.98 (0.70–1.37) 0.52 (0.440.60)
Marital status     
Never married 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Currently married 0.72 (0.45–1.16) 0.90 (0.56–1.46) 2.01 (0.84–4.75) 1.48 (1.042.10)
Formerly married 0.79 (0.47–1.32) 0.91 (0.54–1.53) 3.51 (1.408.77) 1.48 (1.002.18)
Wealth index     
Richest 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Richer 2.10 (1.193.70) 0.44 (0.340.56) 0.98 (0.60–1.62) 0.58 (0.490.70)
Middle 1.88 (1.103.31) 0.38 (0.300.49) 1.33 (0.81–2.17) 0.45 (0.360.56)
Poorer 2.11 (1.203.71) 0.41 (0.320.53) 1.02 (0.61–1.69) 0.44 (0.360.55)
Poorest 2.35 (1.344.12) 0.26 (0.200.34) 1.36 (0.78–2.38) 0.33 (0.250.45)
Survey year     
1993 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
1998 1.05 (0.83–1.34) 1.35 (1.041.75) 0.60 (0.35–1.01) 1.83 (1.422.35)
2003 0.94 (0.73–1.20) 1.84 (1.432.36) 0.64 (0.41–1.00) 1.77 (1.382.26)
2008 0.88 (0.68–1.15) 2.21 (1.722.84) 0.51 (0.310.83) 1.03 (0.77–1.38)
  1. aThe reference category is normal weight
  2. bStatistically significant odds ratios in bold