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Table 4 Factors associated with neonatal mortality: unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio

From: Determinants of neonatal mortality in Indonesia

VARIABLE Unadjusted Adjusted*
  OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p
COMMUNITY LEVEL
Cluster type         
Urban 1.00        
Rural 1.34 1.03 1.72 0.03     
Region         
Bali/South Sulawesi/Jambi 1.00     1.00    
Sumatera excl. Jambi 1.98 0.99 3.98 0.05 2.31 0.91 5.86 0.08
DKI Jakarta/West Java/Banten 1.89 0.95 3.75 0.07 2.17 0.87 5.39 0.10
Central Java/DI Yogyakarta 1.54 0.73 3.27 0.26 2.36 0.91 6.14 0.08
East Java 2.64 1.30 5.35 0.01 5.01 2.00 12.59 0.00
NTB/NTT 1.59 0.64 3.91 0.32 1.16 0.34 4.00 0.81
Kalimantan 2.01 0.9 4.47 0.09 1.87 0.63 5.54 0.26
North, Central and Southeast Sulawesi/Gorontalo 2.57 1.12 5.92 0.03 3.17 1.11 9.02 0.03
Mean maternal education in the cluster 0.94 0.89 0.99 0.01     
Mean paternal education in the cluster 0.98 0.95 1.02 0.29     
Mean household wealth index in the cluster 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.01     
Mean number of antenatal care visits in the cluster 0.90 0.85 0.95 0.00     
Percentage of newborns receiving postnatal care in the cluster 0.35 0.18 0.69 0.00     
Percentage of deliveries assisted by trained birth attendants in the cluster         
<25 per cent 1.00     1.00    
25 per cent – 49 per cent 0.89 0.60 1.32 0.57 1.03 0.65 1.65 0.90
50 per cent – 74 per cent 0.79 0.54 1.17 0.24 0.78 0.48 1.26 0.31
75 per cent – 87.4 per cent 0.53 0.33 0.84 0.01 0.47 0.26 0.84 0.01
≥ 87.5 per cent 0.51 0.36 0.73 0.00 0.40 0.25 0.63 0.00
SOCIO ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS
Maternal marital status         
Currently married 1.00        
Formerly married 1.00 0.42 2.36 0.99     
Maternal religion         
Moslem 1.00        
Christian 0.53 0.30 0.95 0.03     
Other 1.13 0.49 2.62 0.78     
Maternal education 0.97 0.94 1.00 0.07     
Paternal education 1.01 0.98 1.05 0.35     
Parental occupation         
Mother without a job outside the home and father employed 1.00     1.00    
Mother and father employed 1.47 1.14 1.89 0.00 1.84 1.35 2.50 0.00
Father unemployed 1.57 0.64 3.89 0.33 2.99 1.18 7.55 0.02
Paternal age when married 1.01 0.98 1.04 0.52     
Household wealth index 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.01 0.99 0.99 1.00 0.61
PROXIMATE DETERMINANTS
Maternal age at child birth 0.98 0.97 1.00 0.14 0.99 0.96 1.02 0.48
Sex         
Female 1.00     1.00    
Male 1.25 0.98 1.61 0.08 1.49 1.10 2.02 0.01
Birth weight         
2500 – 3500 grams 1.00        
< 2500 grams 6.27 4.15 9.46 0.00     
> 3500 grams 0.75 0.42 1.36 0.35     
Not weighed 3.32 2.41 4.57 0.00     
Birth size         
Average 1.00     1.00    
Smaller than average 2.96 2.13 4.11 0.00 2.80 1.98 3.98 0.00
Larger than average 0.81 0.55 1.18 0.26 0.85 0.58 1.25 0.41
Birth rank and birth interval         
2nd or 3rd birth rank, birth interval >2 yrs 1.00     1.00    
1st birth rank 1.48 1.09 2.00 0.01 1.21 0.79 1.83 0.38
2nd or 3rd birth rank, birth interval ≤ 2 yrs 1.89 1.18 3.02 0.01 1.90 1.07 3.38 0.03
≥ 4th birth rank, birth interval >2 yrs 1.32 0.91 1.93 0.15 1.12 0.67 1.87 0.68
≥ 4th birth rank, birth interval ≤ 2 yrs 3.11 1.84 5.26 0.00 2.82 1.46 5.46 0.00
Desire for pregnancy         
Wanted then 1.00        
Wanted later 1.18 0.76 1.84 0.47     
Wanted no more 1.30 0.80 2.11 0.29     
Delivery assistance         
Health professional 1.00        
TBA/other 1.21 0.91 1.60 0.20     
Delivery complications         
None 1.00     1.00    
Prolonged labor 0.80 0.55 1.18 0.26 0.70 0.46 1.07 0.10
Other 2.04 1.45 2.86 0.00 1.81 1.25 2.63 0.00
Mode of delivery         
Non-Caesarean section 1.00        
Caesarean section 0.95 0.49 1.82 0.88     
Place of delivery         
Home 1.00        
Health facility 0.90 0.68 1.20 0.48     
Postnatal care         
No 1.00     1.00    
Yes 0.48 0.34 0.67 0.00 0.63 0.42 0.95 0.03
  1. * 1216 missing cases were excluded from the analysis