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Table 3 Parenting behaviours: Pre- and post-course means ( SDs ) and effect sizes of improvements for Wave 1 and for Waves 2 and 3 combined

From: Evaluation of the national roll-out of parenting programmes across England: the parenting early intervention programme (PEIP)

  Wave 1 Waves 2 and 3
  N Precourse Postcourse Effect N Precourse Postcourse Effect
(aMean, SD) (aMean, SD) size (aMean, SD) (aMean, SD) size
Mental well-being 1071 43.5 50.6 0.71 3160 43.5 51.6 0.79
   (10.4) (9.8)    (10.8) (9.5)  
Parenting laxness 1040 22.0 17.4 - 0.71 3125 21.3 16.5 - 0.72
   (6.6) (6.3)    (7.2) (6.5)  
Parenting over-reactivity 1032 22.5 17.4 - 0.83 3140 22.5 16.9 - 0.85
   (6.4) (6.2)    (6.9) (6.4)  
Parenting total score 1030 47.4 37.1 - 0.91 3093 46.6 35.7 - 0.91
   (11.1) (11.6)    (12.1) (11.9)  
  1. Note. Effect sizes are Cohen’s d.
  2. a The median is reported for mental well-being.