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Table 2 Cox proportional hazard models for estimating neonatal mortality in Ethiopia by selected characteristics

From: Neonatal mortality in Ethiopia: trends and determinants

  Unadjusted Adjusted
  HR* 95% CI HR* 95% CI
   Lower Upper   Lower Upper
Child's year of birth       
  An increase of 1 calendar year 0.98 0.97 0.99 0.99 0.98 1.00
Contextual factors:       
Residence       
  Urban (ref) 1.00      
  Rural 1.22 1.03 1.46    
Region       
  Tigray 1.53 1.04 2.26 1.54 1.01 2.34
  Affar 0.98 0.64 1.51 0.86 0.54 1.37
  Amhara 1.94 1.34 2.82 1.88 1.26 2.83
  Oromiya 1.63 1.13 2.35 1.50 0.90 2.24
  Somali 1.25 0.83 1.90 1.05 0.67 1.65
  Benishangul Gumz 1.90 1.29 2.81 1.75 1.15 2.67
  SNNP 1.32 0.90 1.93 1.30 0.86 1.96
  Gambela 1.56 1.03 2.36 1.52 0.98 2.35
  Harari 1.33 0.86 2.05 1.18 0.75 1.86
  Dire Dawa 0.92 0.58 1.48 0.86 0.53 1.41
  Addis Ababa (ref) 1.00    1.00   
Socioeconomic factors:       
Mother's education       
  No education (ref) 1.00    1.00   
  Elementary 1.05 0.91 1.22 1.07 0.92 1.25
  Secondary+ 0.65 0.49 0.87 0.68 0.49 0.95
Marital status       
  Not currently married (ref) 1.00      
  Currently married 0.81 0.66 0.99    
Household wealth index score       
  Low (ref) 1.00      
  Medium 1.04 0.91 1.20    
  High 0.81 0.69 0.94    
Maternal/neonatal factors:       
Child’s sex       
  Female (ref) 1.04      
  Male 1.42 1.26 1.59 1.38 1.23 1.55
Season of birth       
  Spring (ref) 1.00    1.00   
  Summer 1.10 0.94 1.29 1.13 0.97 1.33
  Autumn 1.16 0.99 1.36 1.17 0.99 1.37
  Winter (rainy season) 1.25 1.06 1.47 1.28 1.08 1.51
Size at birth       
  Average or larger than average (ref) 1.00      
  Smaller than average 0.93 0.81 1.05    
Birth Order       
  1st-2nd (ref) 1.00      
  3rd 0.67 0.55 0.81    
  4th+ 0.76 0.67 0.85    
Preceding birth interval       
  Not applicable (only one birth) 1.97 1.71 2.25 1.93 1.65 2.27
  <2 years 2.10 1.79 2.37 2.19 1.89 2.52
  2+ years (ref) 1.00    1.00   
Age of mother at birth       
  <18 years 2.08 1.74 2.50 1.41 1.15 1.72
  18-34 years (ref) 1.00    1.00   
  35+ years 1.11 0.94 1.29 1.29 0.97 1.52
Maternal health service:       
Tetanus toxoid injection       
  None or 1 TTI (ref) 1.00      
  2+ TTI 0.43 0.35 0.52 0.44 0.36 0.54
Delivery place/assistance       
  Home delivery/not assisted by TBA/HW 1.00      
  Home delivery - assisted by TBA/HW 0.96 0.84 1.10    
  Government hospital 0.95 0.74 1.21    
  Health center 1.11 0.82 1.52    
  Other health facility 0.74 0.45 1.24    
Mode of delivery       
  Non-caesarian section 1.00      
  Caesarian section 1.26 0.86 1.85    
  1. *Adjusted and unadjusted HRs in bold represent statistical significance at p-value<0.05 and the corresponding 95% CIs do not include the null value 1.