# Table 6 Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of a multinomial logit model for the choice of using self-treatment, seeking professional medical services, or doing nothing (reference)

Variables Prob(Y) = Self-treatment Prob(Y) = Professional medical service
Survey year:1993 (reference)
1998 2.19 (1.84–2.62)** 0.87(0.75-1.01)
2003 2.37(1.98-2.83)** 0.54(0.46-0.62)**
2008 1.98(1.64-2.39)** 0.49(0.41-0.58)**
Urban:Rural (reference group) 1.32(1.21-1.44)** 0.90(0.83-0.98)*
Age: 15–24 years old (=reference group)
25-44 years old 0.92(0.82-1.03) 0.83(0.74-0.93)**
45-64 years old 0.99(0.88-1.12) 0.74(0.66-0.83)**
>65 years old 1.01(0.89-1.15) 0.80(0.71-0.90)**
Education: Illiterate or semi-illiterate(=reference group)
Primary or junior school 1.17(1.10-1.24)** 1.09(1.03-1.15)**
High or technical school 1.20(1.08-1.33)** 1.06(0.97-1.18)
College or university and above 1.09(0.92-1.27) 1.03(0.88-1.21)
Profession: Unemployed (=reference group)
Worker 1.22(1.10-1.35)** 1.27(1.15-1.40)**
Farmer 0.85(0.79-0.92)** 1.15(1.07-1.24)**
Retired 1.13(0.99-1.29) 1.28(1.12-1.47)**
Family members: 1–2 person (=reference group)
3-4 persons 1.29(1.16-1.45)** 1.24(1.12-1.39)**
≥5 persons 1.39(1.24-1.56)** 1.57(1.41-1.76)**
Insurance: Without insurance(=reference group)
Other medical insurance 0.97(0.82-1.15) 1.36(1.15-1.61)**
Rural cooperative medical scheme 0.87(0.80-0.94)** 1.05(0.98-1.14)
Urban basic medical insurance 1.03(0.93-1.15) 1.25(1.12-1.40)**
Free medical insurance 1.45(1.22-1.72)** 1.65(1.39-1.95)**
Shortest distances from residence at medical institutions:≤1 km (=reference group) 0.83(0.79-0.88)** 0.82(0.78-0.86)**
Sanitary water: No (=reference group) 1.15(1.08-1.22)** 0.86(0.82-0.91)**
Annual per capita incomea: Low(=reference group)
Middle 1.53(1.44-1.63)** 1.46(1.38-1.55)**
High 1.59(1.47-1.72)** 1.72(1.59-1.85)**
Smoking:No (=reference group) 1.01(0.95-1.08) 0.91(0.86-0.97)**
Drinking:No (=reference group) 0.92(0.86-1.0)* 0.84(0.78-0.90)**
Exercising: No (=reference group) 1.23(1.14-1.33)** 1.22(1.13-1.32)**
Limited activity: No (=reference group) 0.84(0.78-0.90)** 0.96(0.90-1.13)**
Chronic disease: No (=reference group) 1.21(1.14-1.27)** 0.86(0.82-0.91)**
Duration within two week:1-2 day (=reference group)
3-4 day 1.32(1.24-1.41)** 1.87(1.76-2.0)**
≥5 day 1.0 (0.94-1.07) 1.62(1.52-1.72)**
Constant −0.68(0.12)** 1.03(0.11)**
1. Number of observations = 69,815; Log likelihood = −65984.0; LR-χ 2 = 5707.86, P > χ 2 = 0.000.
2. *Significant at 5%. **Significant at 1%. Constant is a coefficient.