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Table 1 Examples of grounds for factors relevant to RTW-ES according to focus groups

From: Identifying factors relevant in the assessment of return-to-work efforts in employees on long-term sickness absence due to chronic low back pain: a focus group study

Factor Ground example
ICF domains  
Activities  
Functional capacity "The type and severity of limitations determine the suitability for work"
Personal  
Age "As the age of the employee increases, the chances of RTW with a different employer decreases"
Educational level "The educational level is an indicator of the possibilities to RTW"
Competencies "The competencies of an employee are important because of job availability"
Tenure "The longer the tenure, the more can be expected of the current employer"
Attitude "A positive attitude of the employee has a positive influence on RTW"
Self-efficacy "A low self-efficacy increases the chance of non-RTW"
Illness perception "A difference between limitations which are experienced and work ability hinders RTW"
Environmental  
Work-relatedness of sickness absence "If the sickness absence is caused by work, the employer's obligations towards the employee increase"
Job availability "The number of available jobs determines the chance of RTW"
Employer size "The larger the company size, the more opportunities for the employee to RTW"
Reorganization "A reorganization is at the cost of the number of available jobs and the chance of RTW"
Employer's attitude "A positive attitude of the employer towards RTW opportunities increases RTW"
Relationship employer/employee "The relationship between employer and employee determines the readiness of the employee to cooperate with the RTW process"
Communication quality and quantity "A good communication between employer and employee increases the chance of RTW"
Actions  
Intervention  
Training/education "The employer should consider requests for training by the employee"
Job offerings "The chance of RTW is increased by job offerings of the employer"
Professional advice "Advice of a professional can be helpful if the progress in the RTW process is slower than expected"
Job accommodation  
Temporary/modified duty "Sustained, durable work is preferred over temporary work"
Change of employer "If RTW with the current employer is not likely, RTW with a different employer should be investigated"
Measures  
Assessment "The employer should investigate the availability of suitable work within the company"
Monitoring "The progress of the RTW process should be monitored by the employer"