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Table 2 SAAFE teaching principles and strategies

From: Rationale and study protocol for the supporting children’s outcomes using rewards, exercise and skills (SCORES) group randomized controlled trial: A physical activity and fundamental movement skills intervention for primary schools in low-income communities

Principles Strategies
Supportive – Lessons conducted in a supportive environment. 1. Publicly recognize all students’ effort, learning, achievements, and improvement.
2. Provide feedback on student effort, process and progress (not results).
3. Identify and manage inappropriate student behavior (e.g., teasing, over-competitiveness).
4. Promote positive social interactions between students.
Active - Lessons involve a high level of movement and active learning time (ALT). 1. Use small-side games, circuits and tabloids to maximize participation.
2. Ensure equipment is plentiful and developmentally appropriate.
3. Monitor in-class physical activity using pedometers (i.e., approx. 75–85 steps/min of PE time is equal to 50% ALT).
4. Use student leaders to set-up games and activities.
Autonomous – Lessons involve elements of choice and opportunities for graded tasks. 1. Ensure that tasks incorporate multiple challenge levels, and give students the freedom to select level of difficulty.
2. Provide students with opportunities to create and modify rules and activities.
3. Provide students with opportunities for leadership roles.
4. Encourage students to assess their own skill performances (e.g., detect and correct their own errors).
Fair – Lessons provide all students with an opportunity to experience success. 1. Ensure tasks are not dominated by the most competent students.
2. Modify the tasks to increase the opportunity for success (i.e., make the goals bigger, reduce the number of defensive players, alter the equipment used, revise the task rules).
3. Ensure students are evenly matched in competitive activities.
4. Acknowledge and reward participation and good sportsmanship.
Enjoyable – Lessons are designed to be enjoyable and engaging for all students. 1. Include a wide variety of games and activities.
2. Provide engaging and age appropriate tasks.
3. Avoid boring and repetitive activity (e.g., running around the field for a warm-up).
4. Don’t use exercise or activity as punishment.