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Table 1 Intervention components, behavior change techniques and targeted constructs in the SCORES intervention

From: Rationale and study protocol for the supporting children’s outcomes using rewards, exercise and skills (SCORES) group randomized controlled trial: A physical activity and fundamental movement skills intervention for primary schools in low-income communities

Intervention component Dose Description Behavior change strategies Targeted constructs
1) Student leadership 1 x 2 hours Students will be provided with an opportunity to achieve SCORES leadership accreditation. Students will attend the SCORES leadership workshop, which will be delivered at the study schools during PE/sport by the research team. This will provide students with formal acknowledgment (i.e. certificates) and rewards (i.e. water bottles, stickers) for their participation. SCORES leaders will be encouraged to set up (i.e. equipment monitor), run (i.e. deliver lunch and recess activities) and promote (i.e. speak on assembly) PA and FMS development in the school setting. Students who complete these tasks will have the opportunity to achieve a yellow award (complete 5 tasks), red award (complete 10 tasks), and blue award (complete 15 tasks), and receive the associated rewards (i.e. certificates, wrist bands, hats, sporting equipment). ▪Provide instruction ▪Actual competence
▪Model or demonstrate the behavior ▪Perceived competence
▪Provide contingent rewards ▪Social support
▪Prompt identification as a role model ▪Enjoyment
▪Plan social support or social change  
▪Set graded tasks  
2) Professional learning workshops for teachers 1 x full day for Stage 2 teachers1 The research team will deliver professional development workshops for teachers. Workshops will focus on effective teaching methods for the development of FMS, strategies for teaching and assessing FMS, increasing MVPA and enjoyment in PE and school sport (based on the SAAFE teaching principles). ▪Provide instruction ▪Social support
▪Model or demonstrate the behavior
▪Time management
▪Provide feedback on performance
1 x half day for all teachers at intervention schools i) Stage 2 teachers’ workshop: will be held at the university. This workshop will be provided for Stage 2 teachers only.   
  ii) Whole-school workshops: will be delivered in the study schools during one of their scheduled professional learning days.   
3) Parental engagement 4 x newsletters i) Newsletters - Parents of study participants will be provided with newsletters to educate and encourage them to support their children’s PA behaviors. Newsletters will also provide updates and feedback on the project. ▪Provide information on consequences ▪Social support
▪Provide feedback on performance
▪Plan social support or social change
▪Provide general encouragement
1 x Parent evening ii) FMS Homework – Students will be encouraged to complete practical homework tasks focused on FMS development with their parents/guardians.   
Weekly FMS homework iii) Parent evening – Parents will be invited to attend an interactive information session on how to promote and increase PA and FMS in the home setting.   
4) Policy and environment On-going i) School committee and policy review and recommendations: The research team will conduct a review of PA policy in the schools. The research team will work with Principals and school committees to revise policy to support the PA promotion. Policy recommendations include: ▪Provide opportunities for behavior ▪Physical environment
▪Provide access to equipment to encourage behavior
a) Functioning school PA committee (i.e., school committee to meet once a school term).   
b) All students participate in at least 120 minutes of timetabled PA per week (i.e., ensure PE and school sport are timetabled).   
c) 50% of PE and school sport time devoted to MVPA (i.e., lessons designed to maximize huff and puff activity).   
d) Annual reporting of students’ FMS and fitness (e.g. report cards describing student levels).   
e) Promotion of active playgrounds (e.g. organized activities and access to equipment).   
f) Involve family members in school-based PA (e.g. parents as helpers in PE and school sport).   
ii) Equipment and resources: Each school will be provided with PA equipment (e.g. bats, balls etc.) and resources (e.g. activity cards) to support the implementation of the intervention based on their individual school needs (approx. $1,000).   
5) Community links 6 x visits Community organizations (e.g. local football clubs) will be invited to the visit the study schools during PE/school sport. This will help to promote community sporting links. ▪Provide instruction ▪Social support
▪Model or demonstrate the behavior  
▪Provide information about opportunities in the local environment  
  1. Note: FMS = Fundamental Movement Skills; PE = physical education; SCORES = Supporting Children’s Outcomes using Rewards, Exercise and Skills.
  2. 1Stage 2 teachers are the classroom teachers of students in the intervention schools.