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Table 3 The multiple regression models about confidence level as to the avoidance of household SHS exposure among third through sixth graders in southern Taiwan, arranged according to survey year and gender

From: Household secondhand smoke exposure of elementary schoolchildren in Southern Taiwan and factors associated with their confidence in avoiding exposure: a cross-sectional study

Model Wave 1 Wave 2
  Male Female Male Female
  β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI)
Model 1         
   Grade         
3 Ref.   Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
4 -0.40 (-0.71,-0.09) -0.35 (-0.64,-0.06) 0.17 (-0.16,0.51) -0.32 (-0.62,-0.03)
5 -0.13 (-0.44, 0.17) -0.83 (-1.13,-0.53) -0.09 (-0.43,0.25) -0.29 (-0.59,-0.00)
6 -0.90 (-1.21,-0.59) -1.01 (-1.30,-0.72) -0.27 (-0.60,0.07) -0.79 (-1.09,-0.50)
   School geography         
Urban Ref.   Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
Rural -0.08 (-0.32,0.17) 0.19 (-0.05,0.42) 0.09 (-0.18,0.35) 0.02 (-0.22,0.25)
Mountain -0.06 (-0.44,0.32) 0.23 (-0.16,0.62) -0.25 (-0.72,0.23) -0.04 (-0.48,0.39)
   Ethnicity         
Non-aboriginal Ref.   Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
Aboriginal -0.08 (-0.52,0.36) 0.30 (-0.10,0.70) 0.63 (0.24,1.01) 0.32 (-0.04,0.69)
   Mother's educational attainment         
College or higher Ref.   Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
High school -0.02 (-0.37,0.34) -0.27 (-0.62,0.08) 0.10 (-0.24,0.45) -0.35 (-0.68,-0.02)
Lower than high school 0.24 (-0.22,0.69) -0.05 (-0.45,0.35) -0.14 (-0.56,0.29) 0.10 (-0.30,0.49)
   Father's educational attainment         
College or higher Ref.   Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
High school 0.02 (-0.31,0.36) 0.01 (-0.31,0.32) -0.14 (-0.46,0.18) 0.11 (-0.18,0.39)
Lower than high school 0.11 (-0.29,0.52) -0.00 (-0.37,0.37) -0.12 (-0.52,0.29) -0.18 (-0.52,-0.16)
   Monthly household income         
High Ref.   Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
Middle -0.07 (-0.40,0.26) 0.10 (-0.21,0.40) -0.24 (-0.57,0.09) 0.00 (-0.30,0.30)
Low -0.07 (-0.40,0.25) 0.22 (-0.06,0.50) -0.19 (-0.50,0.12) 0.14 (-0.15,0.43)
Model 2         
   Children smoking status         
Never Ref.   Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
Ever -0.13 (-0.44,0.19) -0.29 (-0.66,0.08) -0.37 (-0.72,-0.01) -0.11 (-0.52,0.30)
Model 3         
   Household SHS exposure         
None Ref.   Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
1-3 days/week -0.05 (-0.39,0.28) -0.15 (-0.47,0.17) 0.08 (-0.27,0.43) -0.06 (-0.40,0.28)
4+ days/week -0.36 (-0.68,-0.04) -0.44 (-0.77,-0.11) -0.34 (-0.68,0.00) -0.47 (-0.81,-0.14)
   Family smokes         
No Ref.   Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
Smoking in front of me         
Never -0.03 (-0.68,-0.04) -0.05 (-0.39,0.30) -0.12 (-0.52,0.28) -0.05 (-0.41,0.32)
Sometimes -0.10 (-0.43,0.23) -0.05 (-0.38,0.28) 0.02 (-0.33,0.36) -0.28 (-0.62,0.06)
Always -0.23 (-0.60,0.14) -0.32 (-0.70,0.07) -0.27 (-0.64,0.10) -0.24 (-0.62,0.15)
Model 4         
   Attitude toward smoking -0.06 (-0.08,-0.03) -0.06 (-0.09,-0.03) -0.05 (-0.07,-0.02) -0.06 (-0.09,-0.04)
Model 5         
   Knowledge of tobacco hazards 0.13 (0.09,0.18) 0.05 (-0.01,0.10) 0.14 (0.09,0.19) 0.07 (0.02,0.12)
  1. Model 1: This model included socio-demographic factors
  2. Model 2: The variables included socio-demographic factors and student smoking behavior
  3. Model 3: The variables included socio-demographic factors, student smoking behavior, household SHS exposure, and family smoking
  4. Model 4: The variables included socio-demographic factors, student smoking behavior, household SHS exposure, family smoking, and attitude toward smoking
  5. Model 5: The variables included socio-demographic factors, student smoking behavior, household SHS exposure, family smoking, attitude toward smoking, and knowledge of tobacco hazards