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Table 9 Chi-squared tests and Prevalence Risk Ratios for caries and fluorosis

From: The association between social deprivation and the prevalence and severity of dental caries and fluorosis in populations with and without water fluoridation

  Condition Manchester Newcastle χ2 chi square Prevalence risk ratio
Clinical Caries: Threshold white spot lesion No obvious Caries 133 (15%) 228 (25%) P < 0.001 Prevalence Risk Ratio for Caries 0.88 in Newcastle
  Obvious Caries 740 (85%) 682 (75%%)   
Clinical Caries: Threshold caries in dentine No obvious Caries 473 (54%%) 614 (68%) P < 0.001 Prevalence Risk Ratio for Caries 0.70 in Newcastle
  Obvious Caries 400 (46%) 296 (32%)   
Photo Caries: Threshold white spot lesion No obvious Caries 177 (20%) 298 (33%) P < 0.001 Prevalence Risk Ratio for Caries 0.84 in Newcastle
  Obvious Caries 696 (80%) 612 (67%)   
Photo Caries: Threshold caries in dentine No obvious Caries 475 (54%) 626 (69%) P < 0.001 Prevalence Risk Ratio for Caries 0.67 in Newcastle
  Obvious Caries 398 (46%) 284 (31%)   
Fluorosis No fluorosis 638 (73%) 410 (45%) P < 0.001 Prevalence Risk Ratio for Fluorosis 2.06 times as high in Newcastle
  Fluorosis TF 1-5 231 (27%) 496 (55%)   
Fluorosis Fluorosis TF 0-2 863 (99%) 844 (93%) P < 0.001 Prevalence Risk Ratio for Fluorosis 7.00 times as high in Newcastle
  Fluorosis TF 3-5 6 (1%) 62 (7%)