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Table 2 Mean ankle-brachial index and odds ratio for peripheral arterial disease according to smoking status

From: Cumulative smoking exposure, duration of smoking cessation, and peripheral arterial disease in middle-aged and older Korean men

  Smoking status
  Never smokers
(n = 616)
Former smokers
(n = 1298)
Current smokers
(n = 603)
Mean ankle-brachial index    
   Unadjusted 1.156 (0.004) 1.134 (0.003)*** 1.118 (0.004)***††
   Age-adjusted 1.157 (0.004) 1.134 (0.003)*** 1.116 (0.004)***†††
   Multivariate-adjusteda 1.153 (0.004) 1.134 (0.003)*** 1.120 (0.004)***††
Peripheral arterial diseaseb    
   Prevalence, n (%) 12 (1.9) 55 (4.2) 36 (6.0)
   Unadjusted OR 1.00 (reference) 2.23 (1.18-4.19)* 3.20 (1.65-6.20)**
   Age-adjusted OR 1.00 (reference) 2.31 (1.22-4.35)* 4.29 (2.18-8.43)***
   Multivariate-adjusteda OR 1.00 (reference) 2.31 (1.20-4.42)* 4.30 (2.13-8.66)***
   Unadjusted OR - 1.00 (reference) 1.44 (0.93-2.21)
   Age-adjusted OR - 1.00 (reference) 1.87 (1.20-2.92)††
   Multivariate-adjusteda OR - 1.00 (reference) 1.89 (1.19-3.01)††
  1. Data are presented as mean (standard error) or odds ratio (95% confidence interval).
  2. aAdjusted for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, uric acid, alcohol consumption, physical exercise, and use of medications for hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia.
  3. bDefined as an ankle-brachial index lesser than 0.90 in either leg.
  4. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.01; compared with never smokers.
  5. P < 0.05, ††P < 0.01, †††P < 0.01; compared with former smokers.