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Table 1 Demographic, detention, and lifestyle characteristics of respondent prisoners

From: Self-reported health status and access to health services in a sample of prisoners in Italy

Characteristic No. %
Age, years (623; 95.8) 39.8 ± 10.5§
Marital status (628; 96.6)   
   Married 363 57.8
   Other 265 42.2
Having dependent children at home (638; 98.2)   
   None 436 68.3
   Yes 202 31.7
Educational attainment (631; 97.1)   
   No compulsory education 202 32
   Compulsory education or some degree 429 68
Occupational status before entering prison (643; 98.9)   
   Employed 444 69
   Unemployed 199 31
Cigarette smoking status (630; 96.9)   
   Past/Never smoker 205 32.5
   Current smoker 425 67.5
Daily amount of cigarettes smoked by current smokers (425; 65.4) 21.2 ± 12.3§
First-time incarceration (638; 98.2)   
   No 343 53.8
   Yes 295 46.2
Time served in prison, years (588; 90.5) 6.8 ± 6.4§
Detention status (621; 95.5)   
   Awaiting trial 115 18.5
   Awaiting sentence 102 16.4
   Serving sentence 404 65.1
Length of sentence, years (397; 61.1) 10 ± 7.9§
History of lifetime drugs use (619; 95.2)   
   No 434 70.1
   Yes 185 29.9
Type of drugs used prior to incarceration (173; 26.6)*   
   Cocaine 132 75.9
   Marijuana/Hashish 122 70.1
   Heroin 61 35.1
   Barbiturates/Tranquillizers 29 16.7
   Amphetamine 25 14.4
   Other 70 34.6
History of drugs use within prison (168; 25.8)   
   No 133 79.2
   Yes 35 20.8
Type of drugs used within prison (34; 5.2)*   
   Marijuana/Hashish 18 52.9
   Barbiturates/Tranquillizers 16 47.1
   Cocaine 14 41.2
   Heroin 8 23.5
   Ecstasy 3 8.8
   Other 9 26.5
  1. In brackets the number and percentage of the total sample of 650 prisoners responding to the question
  2. *Multiple responses allowed
  3. § Mean ± standard deviation