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Table 1 Study characteristics by gender and generational status

From: Social and cultural factors underlying generational differences in overweight: a cross-sectional study among ethnic minorities in the Netherlands

  Turkish and Moroccan men N = 334 Turkish and Moroccan women N = 339
  1st generation
N= 126
% (n)
2nd generation
N= 208
% (n)
p-value men 1st generation
N= 160
% (n)
2nd generation
N= 179
% (n)
p-value women
Overweight or obese
BMI (kg/m2) ≥25
27.8 (35) 32.7 (68) .210 45.0 (72) 21.8 (39) .000
Socio-demographic factors       
Age    .000    .000
   15-19 39.7 (50) 60.1 (125)   21.9 (35) 60.3 (108)  
   20-24 22.2 (28) 25.5 (53)   16.9 (27) 23.5 (42)  
   25-30 38.1 (48) 14.4 (30)   61.3 (98) 16.2 (29)  
Ethnicity    .225    .031
   Turkish 71.4 (90) 66.8 (139)   63.1 (101) 52.5 (94)  
   Moroccan 28.6 (36) 33.2 (69)   36.9 (59) 47.5 (85)  
Age at migration of 1st generation*       
   > 6th year 63.9 (78) -   67.1 (106) -  
   < 6th year 36.1 (44) -   32.9 (52) -  
Years of residence- 1st generation*       
   < 12 years 46.8 (58) -   42.5 (68) -  
   > 12 years 53.2 (66) -   57.5 (92) -  
Marital status (married or cohabiting)) 35.7 (45) 15.9 (33) .000 60.0 (96) 22.3 (40) .000
Having children living at home (yes) 26.2 (3) 12.5 (26) .001 56.3 (90) 19.6 (35) .000
Socio-economic factors*       
Educational level    .281    .000
   Low 11.7 (14) 6.9 (14)   28.4 (44) 3.4 (6)  
   Moderate 58.3 (70) 64.9 (131)   50.3 (78) 67.6 (119)  
   High 30.0 (36) 28.2 (57)   21.3 (33) 29.0 (51)  
Position on labour market (individual)    .002    .000
   Unemployed 10.4 (12) 6.0 (12)   12.7 (20) 7.3 (13)  
   Homemaker - -   35.7 (56) 7.9 (14)  
   Employed 44.3 (51) 28.4 (57)   24.2 (38) 18.6 (33)  
   Students 45.2 (52) 65.7 (132)   27.4 (43) 66.1 (117)  
Occupational status (family)    .052    .433
   Unemployed 26.2 (28) 37.2 (64)   28.1 (39) 35.6 (57)  
   Manual occupation 47.7 (51) 37..8 (65)   38.8 (54) 37.5 (60)  
   Non-manual occupation 22.4 (24) 16.3 (28)   29.5 (41) 25.0 (40)  
   Students 3.7 (4) 8.7 (15)   3.6 (5) 1.9 (3)  
Migration related factors*       
Region of origin    .138    .116
   Big city 41.3 (50) 34.6 (71)   35.8 (57) 57.1 (100)  
   Small city/village 58.7 (71) 65.4 (134)   64.2 (102) 42.9 (75)  
Reason for migration    .619    .000
   Came with parents 8.1 (10) 10.7 (22)   11.3 (18) 13.6 (24)  
   Family reunion/marriage 13.7 (17) 11.2 (23)   37.5 (60) 15.8 (28)  
   For economic reasons 78.2 (97) 78.0 (160)   51.3 (82) 70.6 (125)  
Acculturation*       
Cultural orientation    .042    .016
   1st tertile: least oriented towards Dutch culture 37.6 (47) 22.7 (46)   56.8 (88) 14.1 (25)  
   2nd tertile 31.2 (39) 38.4 (78)   24.5 (38) 38.4 (68)  
   3rd tertile: most oriented towards Dutch culture 31.2 (39) 38.9 (79)   18.1 (29) 47.5 (84)  
Social contacts    .014    .000
   1st tertile:least contacts with ethnic Dutch 48.0 (60) 34.3 (70)   49.4 (79) 36.5 (65)  
   2nd tertile 30.4 (38) 35.8 (73)   31.9 (51) 32.6 (58)  
   3rd tertile: most contacts with ethnic Dutch 21.6 (27) 29.9 (61)   18.8 (30) 30.9 (55)  
Religion very important* 68.0 (83) 56.1 (110) .022 72.9 (113) 70.5 (124) .356
  1. * Numbers do not exactly add to total number of participants due to missing cases on these variables.