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Table 3 Mean scores on frailty instruments 1 according to sex, age, educational level and income.

From: The psychometric properties of three self-report screening instruments for identifying frail older people in the community

   GFI TFI SPQ
Total sample Mean (sd) 3.6 (2.8) 4.2 (3.2) 1.9 (1.2)
Sex Mean (sd)    
   Male   3.2 (2.7) 3.4 (3.1) 2.1 (1.2)
   Female   3.9 (2.8) 4.7 (3.2) 1.7 (1.2)
  Z statistic2 (P-value) -3.31 (0.001) -4.95 (0.000) -3.28 (0.001)
Age Mean (sd)    
   ≤ 74 yrs   3.0 (2.7) 3.3 (3.1) 1.7 (1.2)
   75-79 yrs   3.6 (2.8) 4.2 (3.3) 1.9 (1.2)
   ≥ 80 yrs   4.4 (2.7) 5.3 (3.1) 2.2 (1.2)
  Chi-square3 (P-value) 27.58 (0.000) 37.2 (0.000) 15.84 (0.000)
Education Mean (sd)    
   No Education/Primary Education   4.1 (3.0) 4.7 (3.5) 2.0 (1.3)
   Secondary Education   3.6 (2.7) 4.1 (3.1) 1.8 (1.2)
   Higher Education   2.7 (2.2) 3.1 (2.8) 1.7 (1.0)
  Chi-square3 (P-value) 12.13 (0.002) 13.47 (0.001) 2.47 (0.291)
Income Mean (sd)    
   ≤ €900   4.6 (3.0) 5.3 (3.6) 2.2 (1.4)
   €901 to €1500   4.0 (2.9) 4.8 (3.4) 1.8 (1.3)
   ≥ € 1501   2.8 (2.3) 3.1 (2.6) 1.8 (1.0)
  Chi-square3(P-value) 29.42 (0.000) 37.16 (0.000) 5.05 (0.080)
  1. 1 Higher scores indicate poorer functioning.
  2. 2 Mann-Whitney U test
  3. 3 Kruskal Wallis test